What are the causes and treatment of pigment spots on the face? How to prevent their occurrence? Is it possible to get rid of pigmentation at home?
What salon technicians offer beauticians? Modern ways of solving the problem of hyperpigmentation.
Human skin contains pigments that determine its color. They belong to the group of melanins and are produced by special cells – melanocytes. In people with different skin color, the number of such cells is not different, but they work with different intensity.
Therefore, some people have dark skin, while others, on the contrary, are light.
The intensity of the work of melanocytes is the response of our body to external influence. Through the production of melanin, the skin protects itself from the sun.
In fact, the darkening of the skin under the bright sun, which we call a tan, is a protective reaction of the body that is trying to resist aggressive ultraviolet radiation.
It is best to resist he manages skin dark skin. Their melanocytes are able to produce more melanin.
The light epidermis does the job worse, so light-skinned people do not tan, but burn in the sun.
However, tanning involves a gradual darkening of all skin areas, which is ensured by the uniform accumulation of melanin in the tissues. Pigment spots is a focal concentration of melanin, the location of which cannot be predicted.
Scientific language formation of foci of unusual color on the skin is called dyschromia, that is, a violation of natural pigmentation. It can be manifested by the formation of darker spots than the usual skin tone – hyperpigmentation.
Or, on the contrary, lighter, which is called hypopigmentation or loss of pigment.
Hyperpigmentation is the most common cosmetic problem. It is believed that it causes excessive passion for tanning.
But the causes of pigment spots are much more diverse.
- Genetic predisposition. To determine the tendency of people to the formation of hyperpegmentation can be on the light skin tone. It is white, freckles scattered on the face and body are actively formed in the sun. Such people can not sunbathe, quickly burn. A characteristic feature is the presence of multiple moles on the back, arms. People with a light tone of the epidermis belong to the first phototype according to the Fitzpatrick classification. For them, complete elimination of hyperpigmentation is often impossible. Requires comprehensive prevention from childhood.
- Ultraviolet. The most common answer why pigment spots appear is sunlight. It is from the sun that areas of hyperpigmented epidermis are formed, which are located on the arms, chest, shoulders, face. The epidermis actively accumulates pigment under the influence of direct sunlight. Smooths the process of using sunscreen, but cosmetics cannot completely eliminate the effects of ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, sunbathing under the direct rays of the sun is unacceptable even when using sunscreen.
- Hormonal changes. Often, hyperpigmentation foci form during pregnancy, during lactation, during adolescence. They are caused by a change in hormonal levels. Such phenomena cannot be considered irreversible. Often, after normalization of the hormonal status, pigment spots disappear on their own. They remain in violation of the endocrine glands: adrenal glands, thyroid, as well as when taking hormonal drugs.
- Diseases of the internal organs. According to cosmetologists, it is often the question of how to get rid of pigment spots on the face, it is necessary to decide together with the doctors. After all, the localization of dark areas on the body can determine which bodies are not doing well. So, if darkened lesions form on the side of the neck, there is a possibility of liver disease. Linear areas on the forehead speak of disturbances in the work of the nervous system. Dark pigment spots around the mouth – an indicator of diseases of the digestive system, on the cheekbones and the lateral part of the face – hormonal imbalance or taking contraceptives. Senile pigment spots are often localized on the arms, back.
- Damage to the skin. The skin of people of the second and subsequent phototypes with dark skin can effectively resist ultraviolet radiation by producing melanin. But when the top layer is damaged, our “shell” loses its protective properties. This happens after injuries, infectious diseases. According to cosmetologists, one of the frequent problems of the formation of small spots on the face is the independent fight against acne. Squeezing them out injures the skin, which loses its normal level of UV protection. In this place, melanin accumulates more actively, which leads to the formation of foci of post-acne and intense pigmentation.
- Cosmetic procedures. Oddly enough, intensive skin care can also cause hyperpigmentation. The epidermis is deprived of external horn cover by injection procedures, all types of facial cleansing, chemical peels, microdermabrasion. It is not by chance that there are general recommendations that these treatments should be carried out from September to March. If there is a need to clean or peel in the summer, it is mandatory to use a protective cream with an SPF of at least thirty, even when it is overcast on the street.
The reasons for the formation of hyperpigmentation are many. And the treatment of pigment spots on the face should be based on a clear understanding by the doctor, what caused their appearance.
Unfortunately, the removal of age spots is a long procedure. The complexity of the aesthetic correction lies in the fact that the centers of hyperpigmentation can be located at different depths.
With superficial localization, areas of pigmented skin become less pronounced within one to three months of regular care. If the spots are extensive, deep, it may take several years of appropriate therapy.
According to cosmetologists, it is important to approach the problem comprehensively. Otherwise, a positive result will be short-lived or will not be achieved at all.
There are several stages of therapy that allows you to remove age spots on the face.
In each case, the specialist must conduct an “investigation” to identify the causes of the disease. Specifies the period of occurrence of hyperpigmentation, medication, the technique of dealing with it, if the skin whitening was carried out earlier.
It is important for a cosmetologist to assess how deep the pigment is located in order to develop treatment tactics. For this purpose, a Wood lamp or a black lamp is used. It produces ultraviolet light in the “soft” long-wave part of the range.
The pigmentation areas illuminated by the Wood lamp themselves begin to glow, which allows the specialist to understand the depth of pigment localization and the state of the surrounding tissues.
Hyperpigmentation therapy in pregnant and lactating women, as well as in people with age spots from birth, deserves special attention.
- When pregnancy. During pregnancy, it is unacceptable to engage in the treatment of pigment spots. In future moms there are features of the hormonal status that contribute to their formation. But it is impossible to predict how the pigment will behave after delivery. Maybe the spots will disappear, or they may need correction. In any case, neither salon nor home procedures can be carried out before delivery, as there is a risk of unjustified skin trauma.
- With congenital stains. The question of how to remove pigment spots on the face that have arisen since birth, requires highly skilled physicians. It is unacceptable to engage in their treatment in any cosmetology office, a cosmetologist without special education. It is necessary to contact a cosmetologist-dermatologist, since the essence of the problem here is somewhat different than the banal effect of ultraviolet radiation. Melanocyte-producing melanin cells are the “brothers” of neuronal cells. By affecting them, the doctor indirectly affects the cells of the nervous tissue, which is a significant interference with the work of the organism as a whole.
Patient age is another important point in the development of individual therapy. At a young age, the skin regenerates actively, the risk of complications is lower, the epidermis is quickly restored, and skin resources are still considerable.
Therefore, both sparing and more aggressive techniques can be used.
According to the results of the diagnosis, the doctor draws up an individual hyperpigmentation correction program. It is based on the use of the most benign techniques that can be effective in this situation.
Cosmetology offers several types of procedures aimed at the destruction of hyperpigmented tissue sites. Cosmetologist, dermatovenereologist Diana Yudina highlights the most effective.
All of them have a peeling effect, that is, they destroy the affected areas, stimulating the formation of new cells with normal pigmentation.
- Chemical peeling. Based on the action of AHA-acids on the skin. The active ingredients of the composition burn out skin areas, forcing the body to make new cells. Depending on the depth of the pigment, the specialist chooses a sufficient concentration of acid. Surface peeling involves the use of a composition based on glycolic, almond, lactic, trichloroacetic or salicylic acids in a concentration of up to twenty-five percent. It can cope with the pigment located in the upper layer of the epidermis. If melanin is located deeper, more concentrated acid-based middle compounds are used up to forty percent. But before carrying out the median peeling, the beautician always performs a superficial treatment in order to thin the stratum corneum of the epidermis and ensure that the active acids are evenly held inside the skin. Conduct superficial peels course in 5-10 procedures every 10 days. The median require a greater recovery period of the skin, so the course is up to three procedures no more than once a month.
- Microdermabrasion. A gentle method of removing hyperpigmentation, which is called the “weekend” procedure. The rehabilitation period after it is insignificant, does not exceed one or two days, during which the redness completely disappears, and the epidermis noticeably brightens. Microdermabrasion is performed by a stream of aluminum oxide microcrystals that remove the surface layer of the skin. At the same time, the deeper layers are stimulated, which provides a general rejuvenating effect of the technique. Microdermabrasion will be the question of how to remove age spots from the face that have arisen with age, with hyperkeratosis. In parallel, it evens the relief of the skin, disturbed, for example, by acne, therefore it is recommended at a young age.
- Laser polishing. It is carried out by means of a laser, which delivers the beam to a controlled depth, heats the epidermal cells with excessive pigment and destroys them. The most effective and safe technique is the use of a fractional erbium laser, in which low energy is used. The rehabilitation period after a low-impact procedure usually passes quickly and without complications.
- ELOS-therapy. New technology of hyperpigmentation correction, which has a pronounced lifting effect. It is carried out by the action of electric current and light energy. Provides a narrowing of the surface vessels, removes excess pigment in the epidermis, does not have a traumatic effect on the surrounding tissue. The total depth of the impact reaches four millimeters, which allows you to effectively deal with pigment spots of different localization. The procedure has a cumulative effect, its effect develops over several sessions and requires periodic maintenance procedures.
According to Diana Yudina, it is impossible to get rid of age spots on the face in one procedure. A course of up to five procedures is usually required, which should be carried out monthly or once in two months, as recommended by the beautician.
During the main courses of therapy and after the completion of the sessions, the doctor will prescribe home care. The result of treatment depends on compliance with its recommendations.
You may need to purchase cosmetics at home care, which will be advised by a beautician. To normalize the skin condition, serums and creams are used with the content of bleaching components.
Cosmetics based on hydroquinone, arbutin, ascorbic and kojic acids, and glabridine will help in the fight against hyperpigmentation. These components block the production of tyrosine, which, when oxidized, forms melanin. They also slow down the production of the enzyme tyrosinase, which is a precursor of tyrosine.
Thus, they have a light whitening effect and prevent the appearance of new pigment spots.
Apply funds should be locally, on hyperpigmented areas. To use them as the main element of the treatment of pigment spots is useless. They do not have the necessary whitening effect even with regular and long-term use.
Their lightening effect reaches fifteen to twenty percent.
In the period of treatment and to prevent the formation of pigment spots follow the general recommendations.
- Avoid aggressive procedures in the summer. Do not perform peels, microdermabrasion and other cosmetic procedures that remove the top layer of the skin during the active sun period. This may lead to the development of hyperpigmentation. Leave intensive care procedures for the autumn and winter period.
- Use sunscreen. In summer, apply a cream or fluid on your skin with an SPF level of at least thirty. Do not stay in direct sunlight from 11 to 15 hours. If you are forced to stay under the sun, every two hours, remove the sunscreen with a napkin and apply it again.
- Use sunscreen accessories. In the summer wear glasses with large glasses, wide-brimmed hats. Cover your shoulders and hands with light capes to prevent direct exposure to sunlight.
Pay maximum attention to sun protection when undergoing hyperpigmentation therapy, as well as during pregnancy, endocrine diseases, acne, inflammatory skin diseases.
It is impossible to consider folk remedies as a full-fledged alternative to cosmetic procedures. The fact is that the coloring pigments are located in the structure of the surface layer of the skin, to which substances from folk recipes cannot reach.
But you can use them in the case of light, just arising hyperpigmentation, if you want to make freckles less pronounced.
We offer several folk remedies that, according to reviews, have proven their effectiveness.
Kalina contains acids that have a bleaching effect. Honey has anti-inflammatory effect, nourishes the skin.
- Squeeze the juice from a bunch of viburnum berries.
- Add the same amount of honey.
- Mix it up.
Apply to cleansed face, leave for thirty minutes. Wash off the mask, wipe with a mixture of lemon juice and water, mixed in equal parts.
The recipe uses acids that act aggressively on the skin. It is necessary to apply means only locally, on dark sites, not more often than two times a week.
Watch your skin. With increased dryness, peeling, use moisturizers.
- Squeeze a tablespoon of lemon juice.
- Add a tablespoon of hydrogen peroxide concentration of 3%.
- Mix it up.
Apply the composition to a clean cloth or cotton pad. Place the compress on the hyperpigmented area.
Hold for 15 minutes.
The tool can be used to lighten the “fresh” pigment spots, as well as in preparation for peeling in the cosmetology cabin.
- Grind a bunch of parsley in a blender to a slurry.
- Add lemon juice to a viscous mass.
- Mix it up.
Apply to cleansed skin, leave for 20 minutes. Wash off with warm water.
All bleaching agents must be used in the evening care. It is not allowed to go out in the sun after applying them.
During the day, use sunscreen with an SPF level of twenty.
Treatment of age spots on the face requires an integrated approach. Therapy includes a course of cosmetological procedures that destroy cells with a dark pigment, and appropriate home care. It is important to observe the recommendations of the beautician to get a quality result.
And use sunscreens to protect against the reappearance of hyperpigmentation, as a prevention of the initial formation of pigment spots.