How to sunbathe in the solarium correctly? What is useful artificial tan? What are the risks and dangers?
Is it possible to attend a tanning salon during pregnancy, during menstruation? What are the peculiarities of tanning “in a capsule” by skin type?
For the first time about the value of exposure to sunlight on the skin, said German scientist Friedrich Wolf in the middle of the last century. While conducting experiments on artificial irradiation of athletes, he noted an improvement in their well-being, an increase in immunity and vitality.
Already in the seventies, his brother Jörg Wolf founded the company Cosmedico, which began production of the first lamps with a UV spectrum, and then portable cameras for artificial tanning.
In the market of physiotherapy equipment, solarium appeared on time. From the middle of the twentieth century, the booming popularity of tanned skin in the world.
If earlier the pallor of the face and hands was considered a sign of nobility and aristocracy, then with the appearance of bathing suits, a bronze body tone became fashionable. Tanning beds allowed to support it in winter and summer.
The first tanning beds were created to solve the problem of lack of sunlight. It is known that only under the action of ultraviolet rays, vitamin D is produced in the body. Without it, our body cannot absorb calcium and phosphorus – the main “building blocks” of bone tissue.
The lack of sunlight is manifested by systemic disorders in the body: weakness and fragility of bones, the development of rickets. Artificial exposure has become a modern way to improve the health of children living in countries with cold climates, where access to sunlight is limited during the year.
It is also proven that “sunbathing” has other positive effects.
- Stimulate the formation of endorphins – the hormones of joy. They contribute to a good mood, excellent emotional and physical tone.
- Improve skin condition. Ultraviolet has a disinfecting, drying effect, so UV therapy was included in the list of methods for treating skin diseases.
- Increase immunity. Light rays are able to activate the body’s defenses, which is especially valuable during colds in cold and off-season.
In recent years, talk about the dangers of tanning beds much more often than about their benefits. Installations perform not the tasks for which were created fifty years ago.
In addition, it has been proven that the amount of sunlight needed to produce vitamin D in the body is much less than previously thought.
For example, to protect your baby from rickets and to provide conditions for the strength of bones, it is enough to be with him on the street not in direct sunlight for only twenty minutes a day. At the same time, only face and palms can be open.
In the solarium, the whole body remains open. This creates certain risks.
- Allergy to the sun. Individual reaction to sunlight. It may manifest skin rashes, redness, burning of the epidermis. If you have these symptoms in the summer, you should not attend tanning sessions.
- Increased photosensitivity. When taking certain drugs, exposure to ultraviolet radiation is especially dangerous, as it can cause skin hyperpigmentation and other unforeseen reactions. Caution should be applied to the procedures for women taking contraceptives, antibiotics of the tetracycline and sulfacyl series, antidepressants, antiviral agents.
- The formation of pigment spots. Excessive pigmentation on exposure to sunlight meets the skin during menstruation, so on critical days it is not worth spending time in a tanning bed. Procedures after aggressive effects on the skin of the face are prohibited: peeling, polishing, microdermabrasion, in which the horny layer is thinned or removed. Pigment spots appear in people prone to their formation: fair-skinned, with freckles on the face.
- Aging skin. Exposure to ultraviolet light dries the skin, and the longer it is, the more pronounced this effect becomes. It is proved that regular sunbathing causes aging of the skin, as it stimulates its dehydration, reduces the intensity of collagen and elastin production. Aging does not appear this minute, but in the long term.
- Aggravation of diseases. The rules of visiting a tanning salon exclude the possibility of its use in the presence of chronic diseases of the thyroid gland, cardiovascular system, respiratory tract. There is a high risk of overheating and miscarriage during pregnancy, so you should refrain from the procedure in the first trimester.
- Oncological diseases . An aggressive sun and its “reduced copy” can provoke the development of skin cancers. They are caused by an inordinate visit to tanning beds, the abuse of time spent in the capsule, the use of outdated capsules with an uncontrolled level of radiation.
Can a tanning session cause cancer? Scientists have come to a common opinion – maybe!
Currently, public opinion on this method of obtaining tanning has changed dramatically.
In 2013, authorities in several states in Australia announced a total ban on the use of tanning beds. As a result of the research, doctors found that attending artificial tanning sessions increases the risk of skin cancer by 20%.
Until the end of 2014, all Australian states refused to use “UV capsules”.
Other negative factors have been identified.
- Eye hazard. In 2013, British College specialists proved that bright ultraviolet light in capsules leads to eye pathology, causing an increase in conjunctiva on the cornea. The risk does not decrease even when the eyes are closed, because the eyelid tissues are too thin, and ultraviolet light passes through them.
- Psychological dependence. The habit of attending a tanning bed regularly leads to “drug addiction”, warned researchers at the American University of Albany. A person gets used to seeing his body beautiful, tanned, and if he does not get another “dose” of tanning, he becomes irritable, experiences depression and apathy.
In Russia, research on the effects of procedures on the human body has not been conducted. Therefore, the statement of Russian scientists, doctors of medical sciences N. N. Potekaev, V. V. Vladimirov, L. S. Kruglov can be considered significant.
According to experts, the need to artificially maintain tanning all year round has become a mass social need, which is promoted in the media.
At the same time, there are very few reliable scientific data on the negative impact of procedures that are positioned as the “health of the nation”. Such a statement is not true. In Russia, the industry is practically not controlled; there are no official standards, certifications and rules for tanning beds.
This is important to consider when deciding for yourself the question whether it is worth using an artificial tan and how to use a tanning bed correctly.
Despite the lack of regulations on the choice of equipment, its use in Russia, the service of tanning salons in domestic cosmetology exists. And it is regularly used by thousands of women.
How to minimize the risk and get a beautiful tan without damage to health? Follow these guidelines.
- Do not visit often. Every day to use the services of a solarium is unacceptable. Doctor dermakosmetolog Olga Zabnenkova specifies that to obtain a rich tanning tone, it is enough to carry out the procedure once a week. To get a light, golden skin tone, sunbathe twice a month.
- Do not use for a long time. Try not to be in a capsule for more than seven minutes. Excessive enthusiasm for “sunbathing” leads not only to burns, but also to the formation of pigment spots, early wrinkles, dehydrated skin, menstrual disorders and edema.
- Specify the type of equipment. Tanning capsules manufactured before 2009 are not subject to certification. What lamps are installed in them, how intense they are, how dangerous they are, nobody knows. The process of improving the equipment was actively pursued in Europe from 2009 to 2013. Use the services of only those salons that use equipment of European or American production after 2013 release.
- Specify the lamp life. Light elements produce their resource for 400-540 hours. If lamps are used longer, they can emit a dangerous spectrum of rays. The same applies to light elements installed on the eve. Under the rays of “fresh” lamps need to spend less time than usual.
How long can you tan in a capsule? The tanning table in a tanning salon by skin type will help you determine a relatively safe period.
|Skin type||Features of appearance||Tanning Features||Time min|
|Celtic||White skin, blond or red hair, freckles on the face and body, bright eyes.||The skin does not tan. Under the influence of the sun only reddens.||0-3|
|Nordic||Light skin, brown hair, blond or brown eyes.||The skin is able to tan, but the risk of burns is high.||3-5|
|Central European||Light skin, dark blond or brown hair, brown eyes.||In the absence of moles you can sunbathe.||5-8|
|Mediterranean||Dark skin, dark hair, brown eyes.||Sunburn increases rapidly, persists when visiting a tanning salon 1-2 times a week.||8-10|
To protect the skin and get a beautiful, even tone, use special cosmetics for tanning. It differs from beach cosmetics with SPF.
The latter contains sunscreens that reflect the sun’s rays. You, on the contrary, need these rays for a uniform tan.
There are several types of tools.
- The developers. In the form of a cream or lotion, recommended for beginners. These funds enhance the production of melanin – a dark pigment of the skin, so that the body darkens faster. The active production of melanin is valuable and a higher level of natural protection of the body against ultraviolet radiation.
- Bronzers. Funds for those who already use a tanning bed and purchased a tan. Bronzers are applied before the procedure, stimulate the production of melanin, but additionally moisturize the skin, improve blood circulation.
- Fixers. Means in the form of creams or fluids that are applied after the procedure. They not only help to consolidate the result, but also reduce skin stress. Contains moisturizing ingredients, antioxidants, nourishing oils.
Do not use the solarium without appropriate cosmetics! UV exposure on unprotected skin is too aggressive.
Instead of sunburn, you risk getting discomfort, dryness and flaking of the skin.
So, how to go to the solarium, if you go there for the first time? We offer simple rules for visiting a tanning salon for the first time.
- Plan for the morning. Such a procedure – stress for the body, which can disrupt sleep. Schedule your first visit in the morning, for example, before work, so that your body will return to normal in the evening.
- Take a shower. Wash off cosmetics, traces of perfume, deodorant from the body. All foreign substances can cause burns or allergies during the session.
- Do not eat before the procedure and immediately after it. It is better to have at least an hour after eating. If you are hungry, drink a glass of milk or yogurt.
- Use disposable protective equipment. In the salon, you should be given free pads to protect your chest, glasses, slippers, a hat on your head and a rug. All of these protective equipment must be disposable to ensure hygiene requirements. If any of this is not offered to you, refuse the services of the salon.
- Do not sunbathe topless. The mammary glands are extremely susceptible to ultraviolet. Its aggressive effect causes breast cancer. Cover your chest with disposable pads or stay in a bra.
- Apply the product before tanning. It protects the skin from drying out.
- Control time. For the first procedure, half the recommended time is sufficient. In the future, you can increase the duration of sessions.
- Take a cool shower after the session. This will help cool the skin and feel better.
- Apply the product after sunburn. It will protect the skin and support the result.
- Use your tanning bed regularly, but not often. Quickly tanning means just as quickly losing a spectacular skin tone. A lasting effect is achieved by regularity, short procedures 3-4 times a month.
Listen to overall well-being after the session. He did not cause discomfort? Next plan in a week.
Over the next seventy-two hours, your skin will show accumulated melanin and become darker.
Consider the popular questions and misconceptions about the use of tanning beds.
- Are the treatments helpful for psoriasis? “Psoriasis is a pathological condition of the skin in which physiotherapy procedures, including light therapy, are useful and can be used,” commented Lyudmila Znamenskaya, head of the department of dermatology at the State Scientific Center for Dermatology and Cosmetology. “But medical procedures have nothing to do with a tanning bed.” Treatment should be carried out only in a medical institution equipped with certified equipment. ”
- Which device to choose – vertical or horizontal? There is no difference between the capsules. Only in the vertical you will stand without touching the walls, and in the horizontal you will be able to lie down and relax. The only point – sanitary cleaning of horizontal capsules. Ask the salon staff to hold it with you, immediately before the procedure.
- What is needed for tanning to get the most useful tan? Tanning in itself is not only not useful, but also harmful. Darkening of the skin is its protective reaction against ultraviolet radiation. UVA rays are used in tanning beds – an element of the solar spectrum that causes premature aging of the skin. Their excessive doses cause catastrophic consequences. “The result can manifest itself in 10 years,” warns the doctor of dermacosmetologist Olga Zabnenkova, “when at forty you will look sixty.” Also, with a special love for the artificial “sun”, persistent pigment spots form on the nose, cheekbones, on the upper lip, the pores expand, the exacerbation of viral diseases occurs.
- Is tanning in a solarium safer than a regular sun? No tan can be considered completely safe. But if you compare a short session of a visit to a solarium with a three-hour visit to the beach at lunchtime, indeed, a solarium will do less harm.
- Cover moles, tattoo during a session? With an abundance of moles, artificial and natural tanning are prohibited. Procedures can cause the growth of malignant tumors. Tattoo – a place of damage to the skin. In injured areas, melanin usually accumulates more actively, due to which hyperpigmentation or a pigment spot occurs.
- What to do to tan legs? The skin of our body is saturated with dark pigment unevenly. Under the influence of the sun usually sunbathe face, shoulders, arms. But the legs darken last. Do not need to do anything. Tanning will become more pronounced after several regular procedures.
- When oily skin and inflammations on the face tanning is useful? Ultraviolet has anti-inflammatory effects, but the effect is temporary. Immediately after the procedure, the rash can dry out, but in the short term, the skin will respond with increased fat, a decrease in local immunity and an abundance of rash. In addition, in areas with inflammation, pigment accumulates more actively, due to which pigment spots are formed. For acne, tanning is not recommended.
Solarium is a controversial way to get a tan. In some countries of the world, this procedure is prohibited, as it contributes to the development of severe skin and eye diseases.
In Russia, it is not prohibited, but there is no legislation in the field of certification and use of equipment. Understanding how to sunbathe in a tanning salon properly will help you reduce the risks of dangerous diseases.
Follow these recommendations if getting a dark skin tone is necessary.