How to get rid of freckles? Is it possible to remove bright spots from the face forever? How to make it fast?
And is it worth doing at all? Features of the formation of freckles, the reasons for their appearance, the technique of struggle and prevention.
Freckles is a type of skin hyperpigmentation, in which the coloring pigment melanin randomly accumulates in small areas. They are distinguished by compactness – the size of a freckle does not exceed the nail of the little finger, as well as the ability to appear but disappear without a trace.
The time of a massive “rash” of specks is early spring. In autumn and winter, they are usually not noticeable.
They say that freckles cause the sun, which is very fond of people with light and red hair. Kissing them, it paints the cheeks, nose, shoulders in its sunlight. In childhood, such a reason for the formation of hyperpigmented areas could well satisfy curiosity.
But in adulthood, “sun kisses” become a significant cosmetic problem.
So why do they arise? And why do some people do not have them at all, while others go around their lives strewn with bright spots?
In 2014, scientists at the National Institutes of Health (USA) announced the discovery of a gene responsible for sun sensitivity. Having studied 2,230 people, residents of Iceland, they concluded that the gene IRF4 is responsible for skin pigmentation.
The carriers of this gene are characterized by blue eyes, brown hair and freckles. Journalists called it the Pierce Brosnan gene, since this Irish actor has all the hallmarks of IRF4.
According to American scientists, carriers of the gene IRF4 live in countries remote from the equator. They have a small amount of coloring pigment in the skin, so little resistant to UV light.
But thanks to IRF4, the skin actively absorbs sunlight, which in conditions of solar deficiency is extremely important for the body to produce vitamin D, which is necessary for healthy bones.
The presence of the gene IRF4 is typical for people of European type appearance. And freckles are a common cosmetology phenomenon.
Scientific language they are called epheloids and belong to the pigmentation disorders of the skin.
The first ephells occur at the age of three to five years. Up to twenty-five years, their number may vary.
But if after twenty-five the freckles on the face are preserved, it means that the process of their formation is completed and you see its final result.
The mechanism of speck formation is as follows:
- ultraviolet light gets on the skin;
- in the epidermis, the enzyme tyrosine is activated;
- The enzyme awakens melanocytes – the cells responsible for the production of melanin pigment.
With a uniform distribution of melanin in the epidermis, the skin darkens equally in all areas. This darkening is called tan. But when pigmentation is disturbed, melanocytes in certain areas begin to work more actively, emit more melanin than neighboring cells.
This leads to the accumulation of pigment on small surfaces of the skin. Such clusters are called freckles.
Freckles are a variant of hyperpigmentation, therefore, they require attention. They themselves do not bear any harm, being exclusively a cosmetological and psychological problem.
Their characteristic features are:
- location in the upper layer of the epidermis, so you can remove the freckles without deep trauma to the skin;
- concentration in open areas exposed to the sun;
- small size and color from yellow to yellow-brown.
Such specks – the norm for a particular person, if they appeared at a young age. It is worth paying attention to them if:
- you have dark skin and dark hair;
- freckles appeared at the age of thirty, and they never existed before;
- There are no sunspot carriers in your family.
In these cases, the formation of freckles can serve as a signal of disorders in the body. Hyperpigmentation of the skin causes endocrine diseases, hormonal disorders, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. After removing the cause, skin manifestations can go away on their own.
If they remain, the cosmetologist will help to remove freckles.
Modern cosmetology offers effective techniques for how to remove freckles from the face. In combination with home care and prevention of their reappearance, you will achieve good results.
And keep an even complexion for a long time.
Consult a cosmetologist who will select an individual defect correction program. If the recommendations are followed, a positive result is achieved within two to five months.
The individual correction technique includes measures to exfoliate the skin, reduce the production of melanin, home remedies to help whiten freckles.
Pigmented cells are located in the upper layer of the epidermis. Getting to them is easy.
The depth of occurrence is usually less than the pigment spots of a different nature. Mechanical and chemical peeling methods are used.
- Chemical peeling. Only superficial or middle peelings are used that do not affect the deep layers of the skin. If possible, the beautician is limited to peeling superficial, with the smallest list of side effects and the minimum rehabilitation period. For surface peels, low concentrations of AHA-acids – retinoic, almond, glycolic and others are used. The choice in favor of a particular acid is determined by the patient’s skin condition and the ability of one procedure to solve related problems, for example, to reduce the fat content of the epidermis or reduce the severity of wrinkles. An acid concentration of up to twenty percent exfoliates the surface layer of the epidermal tissues, removing the pigment and layers of horny cells, due to which the face brightens noticeably, its relief is leveled.
- Microdermabrasion. Mechanical exfoliation of the stratum corneum of the skin, in which the coloring pigments are “stored”. Occurs through exposure to the epidermis flow of aluminum oxide microcrystals. The procedure is painless, as local anesthetics are previously used. The rehabilitation period passes within one to two days, when redness is observed at the treatment site.
- Laser correction. Removal of freckles with a laser is also painless. It is provided by heating the laser beam of cells that store toning pigment. With an increase in the local temperature, the cells are destroyed, due to which the melanin stained ones die off, and the deep layers of the dermis replace them with new ones. The method is gentle and safe, as a qualified doctor works only on pigmented areas, without damaging the surrounding tissue.
- Phototherapy A modern way to get rid of freckles on your face forever with proper regular care. Based on exposure to the pigmented areas of high-intensity pulsed light. The device delivers radiation in a certain wavelength range, which is not sensitive to normal tissues. Light is absorbed by dark cells, which are heated and destroyed. The technique is similar to laser correction, but is carried out by a different emission spectrum.
Any exfoliating procedures help clarify freckles. With regular visits to the beautician, you can combine the fight with them with the solution of other skin problems.
But it is important to bear in mind that no technique will allow you to quickly get rid of freckles. There is no tool that can safely and easily remove them in 1 day.
Beauticians do not recommend resorting to solving this problem to a deep peel that burns skin to the papillary epidermis.
Such traumatic procedures are dangerous, as they can be complicated by side effects, and deplete skin resources. And in adulthood, when the regeneration processes are no longer as intense as in the young, they are contraindicated.
In parallel with the exfoliating procedures, the beautician prescribe depigmenting agents. Usually they are included in home care, they are easy to use, as they are offered in the form of cream, serum.
Depigmenting drugs are divided into two groups.
- Tyrosinase inhibitors. Substances that do not allow the enzyme tyrosinase to “wake up” under the action of ultraviolet radiation. These include arbutin, koic acid, ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
- Melanin inhibitors. These substances do not affect tyrosinase, but temporarily inhibit the activity of melanocytes and do not allow melanin to be produced. Such substances include metal ions (iron, zinc, copper), azelaic acid, hydroquinone.
Depigmenting drugs will help get rid of freckles at home. Their effectiveness is high if they are used along with beauty exfoliating techniques.
You can apply them yourself, but the expected effect will not be. In addition, it is important to consider the effects of such substances on the body.
- Hydroquinone. The first and only substance recognized by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration as a decolorizing agent. Excludes the formation of tyrosinase, but has side effects. May stimulate irritation and additional darkening of the treated areas. Laboratory confirmed embryonic mutations in hamsters using the substance. In Europe and the countries of South America, hydroquinone-based products have been withdrawn from free circulation, their use as bleaching agents for pigmentation is prohibited. In the US, the substance is approved for free sale.
- Arbutin. Natural analogue of hydroquinone, obtained from the leaves of bearberry pharmacy. It has an identical effect, but has no side effects.
- Diglucoside (harounoside). Plant matter from the leaves of the plant family of marenovyh. Acts like hydroquinone, but does not cause side effects in the form of irritation and traumatic pigmentation.
- Glabridin. The substance is obtained from the root of the legume licorice plant. It is a non-toxic analogue of hydroquinone. Does not inhibit the formation of skin cells, but excludes the production of melanin. It has anti-inflammatory activity, therefore, agents based on glabridine are prescribed after the mid-peelings, laser correction.
- Acids (gluconic, polyacrylic, koi). They block the production of tyrosinase and themselves have a lightening effect. Polyacrylic acid is prescribed as a concomitant treatment of acne.
- Vitamin C. According to reviews of cosmetologists, with an integrated approach to solving the problem of excessive skin pigmentation, the best effect is achieved. Any lightening manipulations affecting the middle layers of the skin, traumatic for the body, become a stress factor. And the skin is exposed to both external factors, such as the sun and free radicals. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a popular and highly effective antioxidant. His presence in the composition of the clarifying agents performs two tasks at once. Vitamin C derivatives can inhibit melanin production and inhibit the activity of melanocytes. At the same time, they protect the skin from aging, which is stimulated by free radicals.
When using drugs follow the following guidelines.
- Apply locally. Use the tool point, only brightly highlighted pigmented areas. Avoid getting the drug on normal skin, as it will discolour simultaneously with freckles.
- Use as needed. When you achieve the expected effect, stop using the drug. Otherwise, you will get bright spots on your face with no pigment at all.
- Protect your skin from the sun. All treated areas must be covered with sunscreen with an SPF level of thirty. Apply the cream over the lightening agent.
Modern effective remedy for freckles includes several active ingredients. They complement the main exfoliating technique of combating hyperpigmentation, suppressing the production of toning pigment.
Traditional medicine offers its own ways to combat hyperpigmentation. Folk remedies for freckles contain acids that act like a chemical acid peel.
But it is important to bear in mind that their concentration is extremely small, it is necessary to apply the compositions for a long time, and the result will not be as pronounced as when using cosmetology techniques.
Traditional ways to fight pigmentation offer face masks against freckles.
Apply kefir or clabber to gauze, apply to cleansed skin, leave for 15 minutes. Wash off with warm water.
Use twice a day to achieve the desired effect.
Add lemon juice to any skin care formulations. Natural acid gently exfoliates dead cells and brightens the skin.
Prepare a lemon tonic by adding the juice of one lemon to a glass of cool water. Rub the skin several times a day.
In the summer, put slices of cucumber on your face to give it freshness and brighten the skin. Cook the mush from the vegetable, chopped it in a blender.
Apply to cleansed skin for 20 minutes.
Use parsley alone or with lemon. Grind a bunch of greens in a blender, mix with lemon juice and apply on pigmented areas.
With regular use of this tool freckles become noticeably lighter.
Despite the genetic predisposition to hyperpigmentation of the skin, we can protect against increased melanin production and the formation of freckles. Your body will be grateful for such care.
And the skin will respond with beauty, elasticity and preservation of youth without aggressive cosmetology techniques.
- The sun is the enemy! The sun needs our body to produce vitamin D. But in the summer, you should treat them as an aggressive factor. Active ultraviolet not only provokes the production of melanin, coloring the face and body is not always a uniform tan. But it also dehydrates the skin, causes its premature aging, and in the presence of a predisposition – the formation of pathological cells and malignant tumors. Never be in direct sunlight in the summer from 11.00 to 15.00.
- Use tools with SPF. 20 minutes before going outside, apply sunscreen to your face with a high protection factor. For people with dark skin, SPF 20 is enough, for light-skinned people – SPF 50.
- Close the body. More prone to tan shoulders, arms, face. Lower body tan does not so intense. Going out, you can wear short shorts or a dress, but be sure to cover your face with a wide-brimmed hat, sunglasses. On the beach, throw a light cape over your shoulders or wear a shirt of natural fine fabric.
- Adjust diet. The abundance of products with carotene in the diet increases the intensity of melanin production. Exclude for a while from the menu carrots, pumpkin. Eat more foods that contain a natural melanin inhibitor, vitamin C. Its a lot in cabbage, tomatoes, grapes, citrus.
Protecting your face and body from the sun, you will notice that freckles do not look too bright. Perhaps, in this case, you do not need to resort to cosmetological methods of dealing with them.
And maybe you should not worry about the presence of red spots on the face? According to stylists, they often give the girl a naughty, pretty, childish look.
Many celebrities agree with the opinion of a specialist. Gentle red spots can be seen on the face of Penelope Cruz, Christina Aguilera, Lindsay Lohan, Courtney Cox.
So is it worth getting rid of freckles? In each case, this question can be answered only individually, taking into account the intensity and localization of pigmentation.
Aesthetic medicine offers many solutions to how to remove freckles from the face. A modern approach to it is complex: along with exfoliating procedures, bleaching agents that block the production of melanin are used.
But there are no ways to guarantee a durable result. And without everyday prophylaxis, any technology will be useless.
The only true remedy for excessive pigmentation on the face can only be considered complete protection from the sun.