Pancreatitis never passes without a trace. Once having allowed the development of the disease, the patient will constantly have to adhere to a certain framework. But this is not a sentence.
Taking a qualified treatment and observing the prescribed diet, you can fully live and avoid complications. If you run pancreatitis, the consequences are unpredictable.
Up to lethal. What is the recommended diet for pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas)?
In search of information on this topic, users often use the erroneous wording: “a diet for pancreatitis of the pancreas.” However, this is incorrect. The correct name of the disease consists of one word – “pancreatitis”.
What is translated from Latin as “inflammation of the pancreas.”
The pancreas is one of the digestive organs. Its weight does not exceed 80 g, but its role in ensuring the vital activity of the human body is incommensurable.
No other body is even partially able to “replace” the pancreas.
It can be compared with a secret laboratory for the production of digestive enzymes and hormones. And any invasion of this “object” is fraught.
We talked in more detail about the problems of pancreatitis with a member of the International Club of Pancreatology, a gastroenterologist Andrei Naletov.
The pancreas synthesizes enzymes, without which the body can not digest food. The body also produces the hormones insulin and glucagon necessary for the body.
They are commonly known as hormones responsible for maintaining the necessary concentration of glucose in the blood. But their functions are much wider: insulin and glucagon have a multifaceted effect on metabolic processes in almost all tissues of the human body.
When the pancreas works without failures, it instantly reacts to food intake in the body. Man eats, and iron prepares for digestion, the food eaten.
Intensive digestion of the digestive juice begins, which the pancreas takes along its duct to the duodenum.
Problems arise if an obstacle appears in the way of removing enzymes. Then the outflow of enzymes intended for the breakdown of nutrients is disturbed. What is the result?
Inflammation, swelling, tissue damage.
“You’ve already drunk your cistern,” doctors say to patients with a diagnosis of pancreatitis, categorically prohibiting the slightest use of alcohol. It is regular “one hundred grams” for a high-calorie, fatty snack in 50% of cases that cause the development of this ailment.
To digest alcohol, more enzymes are needed. Pancreatic juice is obtained saturated, concentrated and can “work” before, not reaching the intestine.
In addition, alcohol alone causes a spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. This is a kind of valve that regulates the process of pancreatic juice in the duodenum. In this case, the digestive juice seems to fall into a trap – it is blocked in the ducts.
Increases the pressure at which the enzymes are in the surrounding tissues, starting to digest them. Intoxication of the body develops.
A variety of organs are affected, including the brain and heart.
Other common causes of the disease.
- Stones in the gallbladder. In 20% of patients, pancreatitis is diagnosed as a complication after cholelithiasis. Stones of the gallbladder can prevent the outflow of pancreatic secretions.
- Obesity. Another 20% of patients with pancreatitis is associated with obesity.
- Injuries. About 5% of patients with pancreatitis are people who have injured a stomach. For example, a strong blow, injury or surgery on organs located in the abdominal cavity.
- Diseases of the digestive system. Pancreatitis can develop on the background of gastritis, peptic ulcer, liver disease. Therefore, it is so important to always respond to the slightest indisposition in the abdomen, and seek qualified help.
- Uncontrolled appetite. Especially increases the risk of pancreatitis, if lean on fat and fried. It turns out the same principle overloading the body, which provokes and alcohol. So, changes in nutrition are important not only in the treatment of pancreatitis. A healthy diet is an important preventive measure. It is not by chance that physicians note an increase in the number of patients with pancreatitis during the New Year holidays. By tradition, people gather for magnificent feasts and cannot stop until the “basin” of Olivier and the “bucket” of champagne are empty. Even more dangerous situations develop on Easter days. After the end of Lent and prolonged food restrictions, a generous break-in with shish-kebabs occurs.
Some drugs are also capable of provoking pancreatitis. For example, hormonal drugs for prolonged use.
Pancreatitis develops as a complication after viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections. Lead to pancreatitis can poisoning – food, alcohol, chemical.
Some patients have a genetic predisposition to the pathology of the digestive system, including pancreatitis.
In the case of acute pancreatitis, there is a chance that the pancreas will return to a relatively normal functional mode. But provided that the patient promptly asked for help. But in chronic form, the disease leads to a gradual, irreversible decrease in organ function.
And then the disease remains with the patient forever: periodically takes a “time out”, and then returns to relapses in the form of exacerbation. Acute pancreatitis may eventually become chronic.
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden and rapidly increasing inflammation of the pancreas. The patient requires immediate medical attention.
Even hospitalization in the intensive care or surgical department is possible. Self-treatment is unacceptable, since in 15% of patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, the disease can be fatal.
The symptoms are bright, you will not ignore them.
What happens to the patient:
- pain in the abdomen, which is localized just above the navel, more on the left, shingles;
- vomiting without relief;
- increased heart rate;
- flatulence (bloating);
- the stool becomes fatty, the food goes undigested.
Chronic pancreatitis has been able to remain outside of the patient’s history for decades. The disease in this form during remission (outside the period of exacerbations) does not produce severe symptoms.
At the first stages, a person with such a diagnosis feels discomfort after eating, especially if he has allowed himself something harmful.
Nausea, bloating, diarrhea are possible. But the patient does not associate these unpleasant sensations with a malfunction in the pancreas. And after the attack continues, live as he lived and eat as he ate.
Meanwhile, the disease progresses, and the pancreatic tissue gradually necrotic, die. And instead of a functioning organ tissue, connective tissue grows.
And here certain clinical symptoms are manifested:
- abdominal pain, in some cases without clear localization;
- nausea, loss of appetite;
- frequent and loose stools, sometimes with drops of fat;
- increased gas formation;
- increased fatigue;
- pale and dry skin;
- dramatic weight loss, although a person may not adhere to any food restrictions.
Pancreatitis treatment requires an integrated approach. And it is not only about medical methods. With complications, surgery is possible.
But in any case, a patient with a diagnosis of pancreatitis must adhere to therapeutic nutrition. The fact that you can and can not eat with pancreatitis, says Andrei Naletov.
Andrei Vasilyevich said that the medical diet of a patient with a diagnosis of pancreatitis is prescribed depending on the form of the disease and the characteristics of its course. For example, a diet with exacerbation of pancreatitis first generally provides for the rejection of food.
It is important to stop the intense synthesis of enzymes, reduce inflammation.
The doctor stresses that in case of pancreatitis it is important to remove products that stimulate the secretion of food glands from the menu. These are coffee, chocolate, strong tea, rich broths from meat and fish, mushroom soups.
Foods rich in coarse fiber are also excluded. Fatty foods will also provoke the persistence of pancreatitis symptoms and disease progression.
The doctor identifies five main stages of a change in the patient’s diet in acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis.
- Hunger. It is indicated for patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in the presence of severe pain syndrome and signs of intoxication. Hunger for such a patient is prescribed in a hospital for up to three days. Forbidden any food. Only frequent drinking in small portions is permissible. Most preferably alkaline water without gas. But hunger should not be long. Otherwise, the process of decomposition of its own energy resources and tissues is launched, the immunity and function of the gastrointestinal tract are reduced.
- Intravenous nutrition. Against the background of the restriction of eating through the mouth, the patient is prescribed parenteral nutrition. It is administered intravenously. In this case, nutrients enter the body bypassing the gastrointestinal tract.
- Special blends. As the dyspeptic disorders disappear in a patient, he is transferred to the next stage of the diet – enteral nutrition. Namely: feed mixtures through a probe.
- Diet number 5p. It is prescribed after mixtures with acute pancreatitis and with exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. In acute pancreatitis, this can occur on the fifth or sixth day. And with exacerbation of chronic – from the second or third day. The diet is designed specifically for the needs of people suffering from pancreatitis. In the diet of the table number 5P emphasis is placed on protein food, but the amount of fat and carbohydrates is minimized. Such nutrition during pancreatitis, among other things, reduces the load on the liver and gall bladder. Patients adhere to the specified diet within a week.
- Diet number 5. Table No. 5 is prescribed to patients during periods of acute pancreatitis and chronic remission. It is also prescribed for cholecystitis, gastritis and ulcers. In terms of product range, this diet is similar to table number 5p, but here more carbohydrates appear and you can already eat not only rubbed food. Make meat from meat and fish. Porridge is cooked with milk. You can have a little more sweet and sugar. Doctors advise to adhere to the recommendation of the diet number 5 for at least two to four months. And ideally – especially not to go beyond the rest of his life. Details of the rules diet table number 5 and a sample menu for the week are described in a separate article.
The fifth table, labeled “p”, is intended for food in acute pancreatitis and during the exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis, provides a special approach to cooking. Products must be heat treated.
All dishes are cooked, cooked in a double boiler or in a water bath. Occasionally, baking is permissible.
At the same time, food should be eaten only in a shabby form. Even the first dishes. In order to achieve a mucous, liquid consistency, the food is ground with a blender or passed through a sieve with a metal base.
Hot and cold is impossible. The permissible amount of salt is not more than 10 g per day.
Sugar should be limited as much as possible to 30 g. In some cases, it is recommended to use a sugar substitute.
When planning meals for pancreatitis, you should focus on the list of products that recommends and categorically prohibits table number 5p. The table below describes the main food “can” and “can not” with pancreatitis.
Table – How to eat with pancreatitis: acute and exacerbation of chronic
|– Crackers; |
– galetny cookies;
– first dishes on vegetable broth;
– first meals of cereals;
– rabbit, beef, chicken, turkey;
– pike perch, pollock, hake;
– non-fat dairy and fermented milk products, including cheese and cottage cheese;
– chicken eggs protein;
– porridges on water or diluted milk from crushed cereals: buckwheat, oatmeal, rice, semolina;
– starchy vegetables like potatoes, beets, zucchini;
– semisweet berries and fruits;
– weak tea;
– rosehip drink;
– fruit juices diluted with water;
|– Freshly baked bread; |
– first courses on the rich broth of meat, poultry, fish and mushrooms;
– cold first courses like okroshka;
– fatty milk and sour milk;
– yoghurts and curds with sweet flavors;
– fatty varieties of slaves and meat;
– salted, spicy, pickled and smoked;
– canned food;
– yolks of chicken eggs;
– “heavy” barley-type grits and all legumes;
– White cabbage;
– grapes and juice from its berries;
– desserts, including ice cream, jam and chocolate;
– sweet soda
Recommendations for the menu are common for both adult patients and children with a diagnosis of pancreatitis. With the exception of babies of the first year of life: for babies, special approaches to the organization of therapeutic nutrition are provided.
Proper nutrition for pancreatitis, the patient can not appoint yourself independently. Moreover, in the conditions of inpatient treatment, dishes are prepared in the hospital canteen.
If the patient is treated on an outpatient basis, a preliminary conversation with a gastroenterologist is necessary on how to eat with pancreatitis at home. After all, a person can diagnose related health problems, which requires an individual solution to the diet.
The doctor will not paint detailed recipes of dishes for every day and force the patient to eat strictly according to the scheme. The main thing is that the patient understands the basic provisions of the diet, and the choice of products did not put him in a dead end. For example, there was no pike perch in the store.
On a diet with pancreatitis, it can be replaced with a heck, well, in any way neither smoked mackerel or salmon.
What about a weekly menu with recipes for acute pancreatitis and chronic exacerbations? The following are several options for the daily diet, which can be oriented.
- Morning . Boiled turkey puree. Porridge made from shredded rice cereals. Steamed omelette made from proteins of chicken eggs. Tea.
- Reinforcement. Cottage cheese, whipped blender to a state of pasta. Tea.
- Lunch Oatmeal soup, passed through a sieve. Steamed beef pate. Mashed potatoes. Kissel from apples.
- High tea Tea with galetny cookies.
- Evening. Boiled chicken puree. Porridge from crushed buckwheat. Apple mousse. Tea.
- Two hours before bedtime. Strawberry juice.
- Morning . Boiled beef puree. Porridge from crushed buckwheat. Semolina Pudding. Tea.
- Reinforcement. Cottage cheese, whipped blender to a state of pasta. Tea.
- Lunch Rice cereal soup, passed through a sieve. Chicken Souffle Porridge from the crushed oat flakes. Carrot juice.
- High tea Tea with galetny cookies.
- Evening. Boiled turkey pate. Mashed potatoes. Banana-strawberry juice.
- Two hours before bedtime. Drink of wild rose.
- Morning . Boiled fish puree. Mashed potatoes. Boiled cauliflower and carrot whipped with a blender to a state of mashed potatoes. Tea.
- Reinforcement. Apples baked in the oven. Carrot juice.
- Lunch Buckwheat soup, passed through a sieve. Boiled chicken puree. Porridge made from shredded rice cereals. Kissel from apples.
- High tea Tea with galetny cookies.
- Evening. Boiled beef pate. Porridge from the crushed oat flakes. Strawberry jelly. Tea.
- Two hours before bedtime. Strained dried fruit compote.
Diet for pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) should be followed in conjunction with changes in the patient’s lifestyle. Andrey Naletov emphasizes that it is important to establish a sleep regime, observe the rules of hygiene and strengthen the immune system. Your doctor may recommend additional intake of vitamins.
The main task now is to beware of any ailments. After all, the pancreas can painfully respond to concomitant treatment.
It is important to understand that pancreatitis is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, the advice of a gastroenterologist should listen not only to patients, but also to all those for whom health is dear.