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Diet for gastritis: what you can and can not eat, a table of products, an example of a weekly menu

Gastritis is called the disease of the century, which can be ascertained in 2/3 of the world’s population. Often the disease is asymptomatic, but is prone to progression.

Over time, chronic gastritis can develop into a peptic ulcer and even stomach cancer. Medical nutrition is not the only, but an important part of the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.

What is the recommended diet for gastritis: what can and should not patients have a gastroenterologist?

Gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa, as a result of which the organ ceases to fully process the incoming food. “Both you and I have a gastritis,” from the first minutes of the conversation, gastroenterologist, pediatrician Andrei Naletov emphasizes the relevance of the problem. “This disease is present in 90% of the population in the countries of the former Soviet Union, although not all clinically manifest gastritis.”

There is an opinion that adult patients are mostly susceptible to gastritis. However, today it is absolutely proved that the problem affects various segments of the population.

Regardless of gender, age and social status. Gastritis is widespread among children, and among teenagers, and among young mothers.

Andrei Naletov emphasizes that patients underestimate the degree of seriousness of gastritis. And this is due to misconceptions about the causes and consequences of the disease.

Traditionally, gastritis is associated with abnormal eating habits and stress. Therefore, people think that to solve a problem, it is enough to revise the diet and drink sedatives.

However, this is not quite true.

Infections, harmful food and overstrain can provoke acute gastritis or give rise to the development of chronic. There are also internal risk factors.

In particular, genetic susceptibility to diseases of the digestive system.

Helicobacter bacterium under the microscope

“Helicobacter is transmitted from person to person. The microbe dies in the air, but lives in saliva.

You can become infected during a kiss, while using only table items. Often infection occurs within the family.

For example, an infected mother licked a pacifier or baby spoon. Therefore, identifying Helicobacter in one and family members, we recommend to be examined by all relatives living nearby, ”says Andrey Vasilyevich.

Gastroenterologist stresses that in most cases, Helicobacter enters the patient’s body in childhood. And the bacterium can not manifest itself for many years, if the patient leads a healthy lifestyle, eats properly, does not have other chronic diseases.

If the bacterium does not make itself felt, and the patient is not worried about anything, modern domestic medicine does not recommend killing the germ with drug with antibiotics. The patient is advised to adhere to certain rules of life and nutrition, to strengthen the protective functions of the body. But, of course, one must always be alert.

Because it is a “time delay charge” that can detonate at any time. For example, gastritis is manifested when immunity is weakened.

“Having penetrated into the stomach, an infection can provoke acute gastritis. If you do not pay attention in time, chronic gastritis develops. The next stage is a gastric or duodenal ulcer.

A peptic ulcer can transform into cancer, ”says the doctor.

Often, gastritis is detected in the period of exacerbation, when the harmful effect of Helicobacter pylum is enhanced under the influence of a provoking factor. This causes clinical symptoms.

Gastritis has a complex, branched classification. Doctors distinguish gastritis by etiology, the localization of the inflammatory process, the degree of mucosal damage, the nature of the acid-forming function.

For example, erosive gastritis is isolated. With such gastritis, the patient’s stomach mucosa is not just inflamed – superficial defects appear on it, which contribute to further ulceration. However, erosion does not reach the muscle layer of the stomach wall.

Deeper defects reaching the muscle layer, already indicate the presence of gastric ulcers.

Andrey Naletov notes that only a doctor according to the results of special studies can diagnose gastritis and correctly determine its appearance. Diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori is carried out with endoscopic examination and taking a sample (biopsy) of the mucous membrane. Simplistically, patients call this procedure “swallow the probe.”

There is also a more modern and painless approach – breath tests. This method is recommended for the diagnosis of infection, including in the child’s body.

At the philistine level, it is important to have an understanding of the differences between acute and chronic forms of gastritis. This is necessary so as not to “overlook” the problem and consult a specialist in time.

Acute gastritis is an acute inflammatory disease of the stomach. It occurs as a result of various factors: mechanical, thermal, chemical, bacterial.

So, damage to the gastric mucosa can be provoked by spicy food, alcohol, infection. As well as a number of drugs. For example, aspirin or antibiotics.

The list of causes of acute gastritis – stress. It can also appear on the background of other diseases.

For example, acute intestinal infection.

Signs of inflammation the patient notices in the first 12-24 hours after an error in the diet or contact with another provoking factor.

Symptoms of acute gastritis:

  • decreased appetite;
  • heaviness or pain in the epigastrium – the upper abdomen, the region captures the intercostal triangle;
  • there is a peculiar taste in the mouth;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • there is an unpleasant belching;
  • feeling dizzy and headache;
  • there is a breakdown;
  • the stool becomes runny and frequent;
  • temperature may rise, but usually not above subfebrile numbers.

This definition is given to chronic and recurrent inflammation of the gastric mucosa. The peculiarity is that chronic gastritis does not necessarily manifest symptoms.

But at the same time, specific structural changes still occur in the patient’s gastric mucosa.

The patient takes recurrent abdominal discomfort for banal indisposition. To alleviate the condition, swallows advertised pills “from the weight in the stomach.”

At the same time, it maintains the usual life rhythm, even without suspecting the diagnosis of gastritis.

This disease is not necessarily the result of acute gastritis. On the contrary, physicians are more likely to treat chronic gastritis in a patient as a separate disease, provoked by helicobacterium.

Doctors argue about the symptoms and classification of this type of gastritis. Often, patients’ complaints do not match the picture, which is detected by the results of endoscopic examination.

Moreover, chronic gastritis can be accidentally detected during the diagnosis of other problems with the patient’s digestive organs.

However, some characteristic signs of chronic gastritis, can be identified:

  • epigastric pain or burning in the upper abdomen;
  • a feeling of rapid satiety and overflow after eating;
  • heartburn;
  • nausea;
  • increased flatulence in the upper abdomen;
  • belching;
  • poor appetite.

Andrei Naletov notes that the correct diet for gastritis plays an important but not the key role. Before adjusting the patient’s diet, it is important to eliminate the cause of the disease. In some cases, antibiotics may be given to the patient to kill Helicobacter pylori infection.

And here only the doctor must prescribe treatment.

“How to eat during gastritis? The diet begins with a change in the patient’s lifestyle.

The first. When gastritis is important to quit smoking, drinking strong and weak alcoholic beverages. Especially carbonated.

The second. Strict adherence to personal hygiene.

It is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of hands, in the office and at home to use a separate cup, in time to change a toothbrush, ”recommends Andrey Vasilyevich.

With regard to the organization of the diet with gastritis, the doctor advises patients to adhere to five key rules.

  1. Fractional menu. Food for gastritis should be frequent. But you need to eat in small portions, at regular intervals. The best option: the patient eats four to five times a day every three hours. The last dinner is no later than 19:00. All food patients with a diagnosis of “gastritis” should be chewed well.
  2. Food processing. When gastritis products should be thermally processed. Even vegetables and fruits in the raw version – an exceptional case. Meat and fish are not consumed in chunks. These products are separated from the bones, skin, tendons and cooked in the form of meatballs, meatballs, cabbage rolls.
  3. Cooking Patients with gastritis are forbidden to eat very hot or very cold dishes. Food can be steamed, boiled or baked without a crust. Nothing fried, pickled, canned, fermented with the diagnosis of “gastritis” is impossible. Porridge boiled on water or half the milk without butter. Moreover, in the stage of aggravation of gastritis and in the presence of severe clinical symptoms, it is better to be guided by the recommendations on cooking, which are prescribed by the therapeutic diet No. 1. It was developed by the founder of Russian gastroenterology, Manuel Pevzner. In particular, the food is preferable to use in the shabby form. The products are brought to the state of souffle or pate with a sieve, as well as a blender. Table No. 1 is usually prescribed during the exacerbation of a peptic ulcer.
  4. Drink plenty of water. When gastritis should drink a lot. Especially alkaline drinks without gas. Patients with gastritis are suitable such waters: “Essentuki”, “Borjomi”, “Mirgorodskaya”. To remove carbon dioxide, the bottle is uncorked and placed in a basin of warm water for 20 minutes. Such a drink is useful before meals. In addition to medicinal water, compote from dried fruits and fresh berries are shown to patients with gastritis.
  5. First meal . Soups are mandatory in the diet of a patient with gastritis. However, preference is given to vegetarian recipes or second or third non-rich meat broths.

Andrei Naletov notes that patients with chronic gastritis should be guided by the recommendations of the diet (treatment table) № 5 by Pevzner. Table number 5 is also called liver, because it helps to improve the work of the same body.

Meals, provided by the fifth table for gastritis, on the background of drug treatment helps reduce inflammation of the gastric mucosa, normalizes the work of the digestive tract.

This diet has subspecies with appropriate markings. In these options, the main menu is adjusted to the needs of patients with other diagnoses.

For example, table number 5p is prescribed for acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis. A diet number 5a is recommended for patients with diseases of the liver and gallbladder.

Andrey Naletov emphasizes that most often chronic gastritis occurs with high acidity. Reduced acidity is observed in older people or if the atrophic process is already running in the patient’s body.

Diet for gastritis with high acidity and a diet for gastritis with low acidity are similar. Patients need four or five meals a day. It is also important to remove whole milk, smoked foods and spices, spicy seasonings, and canned food from the menu.

But there are some nuances.

Four important points in the organization of the diet of patients with a diagnosis of “gastritis” with reduced acidity.

  1. Principles schazheniya. During the exacerbation of gastritis, a diet prescribed for mechanical and chemical sparing is prescribed to a patient with reduced acidity for five to seven days. But with the preservation in the menu of chemical pathogens secretion. Food should be served warm, and it is important to boil the food well. No fried “with a crust” dishes. This approach helps relieve inflammation. A well-ground food is better digested and absorbed.
  2. Grocery “taboo”. In patients with reduced acidity, the secretion of gastric juice is reduced, an insufficient amount of hydrochloric acid is produced. The body is hard to digest products rich in coarse fiber. This, for example, radishes, grapes, gooseberries, dates. They are not allowed in the menu. Also need to exclude food with a high content of connective tissue. This, in particular, the skin of birds and fish, fatty and sinewy meat, fat, cartilage.
  3. Stimulation. In chronic gastritis with reduced secretion, the patient’s main diet is based on the need to stimulate the glandular apparatus of the gastric mucosa. And with moderate exacerbation, it is possible to introduce into the patient’s menu mild chemical stimulants. These are tea, weak coffee, cocoa, juices from vegetables and fruits, fat-free fish and meat broths, first courses from fresh vegetables.
  4. Drinking As a drink for patients with chronic gastritis with low acidity, the intake of mineral waters of strong mineralization is recommended. For example, “Essentuki-17”. But with increased acidity of the stomach, patients are shown taking mineral waters of low mineralization – Essentuki-4.

Meals for gastritis of the stomach and the therapeutic menu for each day should be planned, focusing on the rules of the fifth table. Your doctor will tell you a list of foods that are useful and should be in the diet.

And also will determine the list of those delicacies, which during gastritis will have to be forgotten.

Below is the basic food table for gastritis, which highlights the main recommended and prohibited foods.

Table – Proper nutrition for patients with a diagnosis of gastritis

Product groupsCanCan not
Drink– Weak black tea with added milk;
– drinks from wild rose and chamomile;
– compote of dried fruits and fresh berries;
– sweet fruit drink;
– sweet jelly
– Coffee;
– cocoa;
– sweet soda;
– alcohol;
– green and red tea;
– fresh
First meal– Vegetable soup without meat;
– milk with pasta;
– red borscht on vegetable broth;
– vegetable soup with pearl barley
– Fat fish broth;
– fatty meat broth;
– first dishes with mushrooms;
– green borsch with sorrel;
– borsch with beans;
– okroshka
Kashi and pasta– buckwheat;
– rice;
– oatmeal;
– macaroni with vegetables or cottage cheese, without fatty sauces and seasonings
– Pea, lentil and other legumes;
– barley;
– barley;
– corn;
– fat and sharp pasta
Meat, fish, offal and seafood– Hen;
– rabbit;
– low-fat beef varieties;
– beef tongue;
– hake;
– pollock;
– pike perch
– Pork;
– fat;
– offal;
– sausages and sausages;
– canned food;
– red fish;
– salty fish;
– smoked fish;
– caviar;
– crab sticks;
– shrimp
Bakery products– Rusk from rye and bran bread;
– lean pastries with berries;
– lean pastries with cottage cheese;
– lean pastries with boiled meat or fish
– Fresh white bread;
– fried pies;
– baking;
– baking puff pastry;
– pancakes
Milk products– Low-fat kefir;
– low-fat cottage cheese;
– non-fat yogurt without additives;
– non-fat milk;
– low-fat sour cream (rarely)
– Cheese;
– dairy and dairy products with a high percentage of fat;
– cream;
– serum;
– ryazhenka
Vegetables, greens, mushrooms– Potato;
– carrot;
– cabbage: cauliflower, Peking, broccoli;
– squash;
– beets;
– celery;
– pumpkin;
– tomatoes – rarely;
– white cabbage – rarely in borscht

Note: these products, patients with gastritis eat mainly after heat treatment

– Mushrooms;
– corn;
– sorrel;
– spinach;
– radish;
– radish;
– Eggplant;
– bow;
– garlic;
– parsley;
– dillFruits, berries, nuts– Sweet apples (especially baked);
– raspberries;
– cherry;
– drain;
– currant;
– Strawberry
– prunes;
– dried apricots

Note: these products, patients with gastritis eat mainly after heat treatment

– All sour fruits and berries;
– citrus;
– any nutsDessert– Galetny cookies;
– marshmallows;
– biscuit;
– caramel;
– honey;
– non-acidic jam, diluted with water or tea– Chocolate;
– ice cream;
– cakes;
– kozinaki;
– condensed milk;
– chocolate candiesEggs– Steamed chicken egg omelette– Fried eggs from whole chicken or quail eggs;
– boiled chicken or quail eggsButter– Refined vegetable from sunflower seeds – up to 15 g per day– Creamy;
– unrefined vegetable;
– smaletsSauces, spices, seasonings– Salt – up to 10 g per day;
– Vanillin – only for fragrance;
– Sugar – moderate– Ketchup;
– mayonnaise;
– adjika;
– mustard;
– vinegar

Patients who are on a gastritis diet are advised to pre-plan their menu for the week with recipes. A clear action plan will avoid harmful snacks. It is much easier when the necessary products are prepared in the patient’s fridge.

And the person knows how and what can be cooked quickly from them.

Below is a rough plan for a weekly diet for a patient who is being treated for chronic gastritis. This menu is described in books on clinical dietetics and clinical nutrition.

  • Morning – 7:00. Porridge with omelet of egg whites. Tea.
  • Reinforcement – 10:00. Baked apples.
  • Lunch – 13:00. Vegetable low-fat soup. Rice porridge with boiled chicken. Compote.
  • Reinforcement – 4:00 p.m. Sweet crackers. Drink of wild rose.
  • Dinner – 18: 30-19: 00. Mashed potatoes with a piece of lean fish. Semolina Pudding. Kissel.
  • For the night. A glass of low-fat kefir.
  • Morning – 7:00. Steamed fishcake. Boiled potatoes. Tea.
  • Reinforcement – 10:00. Low-fat cottage cheese.
  • Lunch – 13:00. Barley soup with vegetables. Buckwheat porridge with boiled meat. Compote.
  • Reinforcement – 4:00 p.m. Sweet crackers. Carrot Juice
  • Dinner – 18: 30-19: 00. Chicken meatballs baked in the oven. Mashed potatoes on the water. Charlotte. Tea.
  • At night – 21:00. A glass of low-fat kefir.

  • Morning – 7:00. Rice porridge with turkey meat balls. Tea with milk.
  • Reinforcement – 10:00. Cottage cheese casserole with low-fat sour cream.
  • Lunch – 13:00. Vegetable soup. Rabbit meat cutlets, steamed with vegetable stew. Compote.
  • Reinforcement – 4:00 p.m. Sweet crackers. Drink of wild rose.
  • Dinner – 18: 30-19: 00. Oatmeal on half milk with chicken meatballs. Juice from fresh berries.
  • At night – 21:00. A glass of low-fat kefir.
  • Morning – 7:00. Buckwheat porridge with protein omelette. Tea with milk.
  • Reinforcement – 10:00. Kissel.
  • Lunch – 13:00. Vegetable soup. Chicken meatballs with mashed boiled vegetables. Compote.
  • Reinforcement – 4:00 p.m. Sweet crackers. Dried fruits compote.
  • Dinner – 18: 30-19: 00. Mashed potatoes on water with boiled fish. Tea.
  • At night – 21:00. A glass of low-fat kefir.
  • Morning – 7:00. Boiled tongue. Semolina porridge in half milk. Tea.
  • Reinforcement – 10:00. Baked apple.
  • Lunch – 13:00. Vegetable soup with small vermicelli. Mashed potatoes with boiled turkey meat. Compote.
  • Reinforcement – 4:00 p.m. Biscuit. Drink of wild rose.
  • Dinner – 18: 30-19: 00. Potato casserole with minced meat. Tea.
  • At night – 21:00. A glass of low-fat kefir.

  • Morning – 7:00. Meat soufflé baked in the oven. Oatmeal on half milk. Tea.
  • Reinforcement – 10:00. Souffle carrot and apple.
  • Lunch – 13:00. Vegetable rice soup. Buckwheat porridge with steam rabbit meatballs. Carrot-banana juice.
  • Reinforcement – 4:00 p.m. Sweet crackers. Tea.
  • Dinner – 18: 30-19: 00. Mashed potatoes on the water. Boiled fish. Drink of wild rose.
  • At night – 21:00. A glass of low-fat kefir.
  • Morning – 7:00. Oatmeal on half milk. Steam fish cakes from low-fat varieties of fish. Tea.
  • Reinforcement – 10:00. Low-fat fresh cottage cheese. Baked apple.
  • Lunch – 13:00. Vegetable soup. Boiled potatoes. Beef stroganoff from beef. Compote.
  • Reinforcement – 4:00 p.m. Sweet crackers. Tea.
  • Dinner – 18: 30-19: 00. Fish baked in the oven. Boiled carrot puree. Tea.
  • At night – 21:00. A glass of low-fat kefir.

How much should a diet be followed for gastritis of the stomach? Strict control is necessary during exacerbation and in the first months after.

But ideally, a patient with a diagnosis of “gastritis” should stick to the recommended table and during remission. Although, menu extensions and holiday exceptions are possible.

If only within reasonable limits, and if we are not talking about coffee, cigarettes, alcohol and fatty foods.

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