Stones that are not amenable to conservative treatment – the main indication for the removal of the gallbladder. Doctors calm down: patients who have undergone such a surgical procedure, quickly recovered.
And if they follow the recommendations of the doctor and eat right, they can live a full life. What kind of diet is needed after removal of the gallbladder in the first days after surgery and in the future?
The gallbladder is the “reservoir” for the accumulation of bile. Bile is involved in digestion, providing a change in intestinal gastric digestion.
In the duodenum bile enters through the common bile duct.
The main indication for surgery to remove the gallbladder – cholecystectomy – is cholelithiasis. Also, surgical treatment is sometimes required for cholecystitis.
In gallstone disease, stones form in the gallbladder or in its ducts. Scientifically speaking.
In size and chemical composition, they are different. There are those that are less than a millimeter.
And sometimes doctors extract stones the size of a chicken egg. The formation of gallstones takes from several months to decades.
Gallstones form for two reasons. First, bile stagnates.
Secondly, the quality and consistency of bile changes as a result of metabolic disorders.
The formation of stones contribute to:
- irregular meals;
- unbalanced express diets;
- elevated cholesterol;
- sedentary work;
- some hormonal drugs;
- malfunctions in the pancreas.
If the stones are in the gall bladder and do not move, then the person may not even “feel” them. But when you move the stones to the neck of the gallbladder, the symptoms will become apparent.
It is a bitter taste in the mouth, nausea, vomiting, “shooting” under the edge on the right.
Inflammation of the gallbladder is called cholecystitis. The cause of its development may be cholelithiasis, however, cholecystitis is often a predisposing factor for the formation of cholelithiasis in a patient.
Bacterial infection and parasites can also serve as impetus to the development of cholecystitis. The disease develops on the background of pancreatitis.
Other risk factors: congenital abnormalities, advanced age, dry food.
The main symptoms of cholecystitis include paroxysmal pain in the right hypochondrium associated with food intake.
The gallbladder for patients with a diagnosis of cholecystitis is removed if the disease is accompanied by cholelithiasis. Coneless cholecystitis is usually treated with medication.
Physiotherapy is also used, a spa treatment and a sparing diet are recommended on an ongoing basis.
Laparoscopy method: modern approach to treatment and diet
Modern physicians support an outstanding colleague. Stones do not occur if the gallbladder is working properly. That is, stones are not the cause, but the effect.
And a more effective method of treating this affliction than surgical intervention has not yet been invented.
But the technology of the operation itself leaps and bounds forward. If the first patient of Karl Langenbuch spent almost seven weeks in the hospital after the removal of the gallbladder, now patients are discharged on the second or third day!
And every year the surgeons in the arsenal there are more and more new opportunities.
Today lane surgery to remove the gallbladder is extremely rare. This is due to the fact that the patient needs a long time to recover from them.
And also increases the risk of a number of complications: postoperative hernia, adhesions, problems with conception in women.
We asked the gastroenterologist Andrey Naletov for more information about how to build proper nutrition after the removal of the gallbladder. “In most patients, no problems arise after the gallbladder is removed. Of course, provided that they fulfill all the doctor’s prescriptions.
Such patients quickly return to service. They are recommended to follow the simple diet number 5, which is useful even for absolutely healthy people, ”says Andrei Vasilyevich.
However, there are cases when the patient has postcholecystectomy syndrome. The development of this pathology can be assumed with the appearance of a number of symptoms after surgery: a change in the nature of the stool, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting at the peak of pain, weakness, lethargy.
“Why is this happening? The question is debatable. Among the reasons – the dysfunction of the sphincter apparatus Oddi.
It is a kind of valve that regulates the flow of bile and pancreatic juice into the duodenum. The patient may also have other problems of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract that were not diagnosed before the operation and, accordingly, were not resolved.
It is impossible to deny the fact that the cause of postcholecystectomy syndrome can be errors made by the surgeon during the operation, ”the doctor says.
Diet after gallbladder removal: first week
Therefore, the following discussion deals with the nutrition of only those patients who do not have postoperative complications after removal of the gallbladder and associated health problems. The menu for the first week after cholecystectomy is designed to delicately help the body tune in to work in new conditions.
Diet after removal of the gallbladder by laparoscopy by day is approximately the same.
- The first day. You need to refrain from any food and drink. When the patient recovers, dry mouth will disturb him. To alleviate the condition, the care-giver rubs the patient’s lips with a wet gauze pad. They are moistened in alkaline or boiled water. After five to six hours, the patient can rinse his mouth with unsweetened herbal decoction. But you can not swallow the liquid.
- The second day. Now the patient can gradually drink a warm, non-sweet rosehip drink, non-carbonated alkaline water. The total fluid volume is up to a liter. Plus, low-fat kefir, kissel, tea, and sugar-free compote appear in the diet. The first food should be eaten fractionally at intervals of three to four hours. The volume of one serving is about 150 g.
- Third – the fifth day. The postoperative menu expands. Here’s what you can eat: mashed potatoes, lean boiled fish in the form of pate. And also try the soups in vegetable broth, passed through a sieve.
- The sixth – the seventh day. Now you can add dry bread. Enter the porridge from the crushed cereals. They are made in water or milk, diluted in half with water. Meat low-fat varieties are cooked patties or meatballs. Appear lean milk and sour milk. And also boiled and chopped up vegetables. Approximately the same food provides “wiped” diet number 1. Table number 1 is usually appointed yazvennikami during exacerbation.
Diet number 5 after surgery to remove the gallbladder is a complete, but gentle food. The patient eats mostly boiled or steam dishes. You can use the slow cooker.
This device allows you to cook food that meets the requirements of the diet, with minimal time costs. Sometimes you can bake cottage cheese or fruit.
Raw food is undesirable. Food needs to grind.
For example, meat is always twisted in mincemeat.
Calorie intake – 2600 kcal. Should eat often. Minimum – four posterings, and better – six.
Below are lists of useful and harmful products within the fifth table after the removal of the gallbladder.
Table – Recovery after cholecystectomy: useful and harmful products
|– Crackers; |
– galetny cookies;
– liquid from cereals, vegetables, milk and fruits;
– low-fat beef;
– rabbit meat;
– hake, pollock, pike perch;
– low-fat milk, kefir, cottage cheese, sour cream;
– chicken eggs – mostly protein;
– starchy vegetables, non-acidic fruit and berry set – mainly thermally processed;
– tea with milk;
– drink from wild rose;
– salt – up to 10 g;
– sugar – up to 80 g;
– refined vegetable oil – moderately
|– Fresh bread; |
– fried, sweet, puff pies;
– green and red tea;
– fish, meat and mushroom broths;
– sausages and sausages;
– canned food;
– red, salted and smoked fish;
– crab sticks;
– peas, lentils and other legumes;
– “heavy” cereals;
– fatty milk;
– ice cream;
– cow oil;
– unrefined vegetable oil
An example of a daily patient menu that is restored after cholecystectomy.
- Breakfast number 1. Steam fishcake. Pounded boiled potatoes. Tea.
- Breakfast number 2. Low-fat cottage cheese whipped with a blender to a pasty state.
- Lunch Soup from rice grits on vegetable broth. Buckwheat. Boiled beef puree. Compote.
- High tea Biscuit. Drinking from the hips.
- Dinner . Boiled chicken breast pate. Porridge on the water or half milk. Kissel fruit.
- Two hours before bedtime. Kefir.
Here are other permissible recipes: cottage cheese casserole, charlotte, rabbit stew, minced meat and grated potato casserole, grated apple and carrot pie.
How long is the recovery period? All individually. According to reviews, some patients return to normal life after 1 month.
At the same time they boast in the thematic forums that, as before, they allow themselves fast food, cream desserts and even alcoholic parties on Fridays.
Doctors, to put it mildly, do not approve such food “experiments”. Yes, patients who have undergone cholecystectomy should not eat only “porridge-malaši” until the end of their life.
But the diet after a month of gallbladder removal should not end as if nothing had happened. It is necessary to leave it step by step, somewhere within a year.
For example, after about 3 months, you can safely switch to lumpy food, cook regular cereal and make meat first courses. And it is better to introduce fresh vegetables and fruits into the menu not earlier than in 6 months. At the same time, there are peremptory rules that will have to be followed in six months and ten years from now …
Gastroenterologist Andrei Naletov recommends that those patients who live without the gall bladder adhere to the five rules.
- There is a little bit. Now that there is no storage for bile in the body, the secret goes directly from the liver to the intestine. This means that bile is less concentrated. This is enough to cope with modest amounts of food. But large portions of the body is already very hard to digest. The stomach from overeating will hurt, nausea, vomiting, frustration are possible.
- There are often. At least four to five tables. It is important to avoid stagnation of bile. After all, the secret can accumulate in the ducts, which is fraught with the formation of new stones in the intrahepatic ducts.
- Limit cholesterol. Again, the high content of this substance in the body – one of the main causes of the appearance of stones.
- Move and look after yourself. The diet after removal of the gallbladder suggests that the patient will change not only his eating habits, but also change his attitude towards himself and his health. It is necessary to put weight in order, stop smoking, learn to avoid stress and get enough sleep. It is important to take care of personal hygiene and hygiene at home. Plus need physical exercise. They are the prevention of congestive processes in the bile ducts. Already after 1 month after surgery, you can begin to practice daily walks. In the future, it is worth doing exercises. As an option – sign up for swimming.
- Maintain microflora. Above it was said that bile neutralizes harmful microorganisms in the intestine. After the operation to remove the gallbladder, the bactericidal function of bile weakens. As a result, the patient may suffer from constipation or, conversely, loose stools. Here consultation of the gastroenterologist is obligatory. Perhaps, after cholecystectomy, the patient will be recommended medication to restore the microflora. And as a preventive measure, it is recommended to abandon desserts. Sweets are best replaced by berries.
The gastroenterologist stresses that problems with the gallbladder do not arise from scratch. And the patient gets to the surgeons for a combination of reasons.
And nutritional errors are one of the most significant. Therefore, if a patient after cholecystectomy wants to avoid new health problems, in any case he will have to change.
In particular, the diet after surgery to remove the gallbladder permanently puts a taboo on alcohol, lard, fat, smoked and salty.