Главная 7 Wellness Blog 7 Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Infectious Mononucleosis
Contents I have infectious mononucleosis; how do I know if it is from EBV? If I get infectious mononucleosis from EBV, is there a different treatment? How can I avoid contracting or transmitting EBV and/or infectious mononucleosis? Is treatment the same if I am pregnant and have EBV or infectious mononucleosis? Is it safe to breastfeed my baby if I have EBV and he/she does not? Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Infectious Mononucleosis Home / Pregnancy Complications / Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Infectious Mononucleosis The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpes virus 4, is a part of the human herpes virus family and is the most common human virus.

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Infectious Mononucleosis

Contents

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Infectious Mononucleosis

Home / Pregnancy Complications / Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Infectious Mononucleosis

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpes virus 4, is a part of the human herpes virus family and is the most common human virus. Most people will have evidence (antibodies to EBV in their blood) of prior EBV infection by the age of 35. Once infected with EBV, you carry the virus for the rest of your life, though usually in the dormant state.

After an initial EBV infection, the virus may go dormant and remain latent for many years until something triggers its reappearance. Occasionally, this can happen during pregnancy.

In healthy infants and adults, there is often no apparent infection from the first introduction to EBV. Teenagers and young adults, as well as patients with lower functioning immune systems (people with AIDS and other immune diseases), may see more significant symptoms and may develop infectious mononucleosis (“mono”).

Though EBV is not the only virus that can cause infectious mononucleosis, it is the most common cause. In teens and young adults, 1 in 4 infections with EBV will result in a mononucleosis infection.

EBV can also cause many other diseases and conditions, including but not limited to:

 

  • Viral meningitis
  • Encephalitis
  • Transverse myelitis
  • Optic neuritis
  • Paralysis of facial muscles or on one side of the body
  • Acute Cerebellar Ataxia
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome
  • Pancreatitis
  • Myocarditis
  • Pneumonia
  • Lung disease
  • Lymphocytosis
  • Weakened immune system

 

To find out more about these other possible illnesses, visit the CDC’s website here. If you are concerned about any symptoms that you are having, please call your doctor right away.

The virus is spread mainly through saliva but can spread through all bodily fluids. “Mono,” or infectious mononucleosis, is a common infection that can result from EBV and among teenagers is often called the “kissing disease” due to its ease of transmission in saliva.

Symptoms of an EBV infection may include:

 

  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Exhaustion
  • Skin rash
  • Swollen neck lymph nodes
  • Enlarged liver and spleen

 

These symptoms should only last as long as any other common illness, typically no longer than 1-2 weeks. Occasionally, fatigue may last longer.

Remember that many children and healthy adults will not experience any symptoms, or the symptoms may seem like a normal childhood illness or the common cold. Those who are most susceptible to having these symptoms are those with compromised or low-functioning immune systems (persons with HIV/AIDS, some pregnant women, teenagers, and maybe even more so someone with a teen pregnancy.).

The symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are similar to EBV but are more severe. They may include:

 

  • Fever
  • Extreme exhaustion
  • Sore throat
  • Skin Rash
  • Headaches
  • Body aches
  • Swollen neck & armpit lymph nodes
  • Swollen liver and/or spleen

 

You may shake these symptoms in 1-2 weeks, but occasionally it can take more time to get back to your normal level of energy (a few weeks to 6 months). If your symptoms persist six or more months past diagnosis, you may be diagnosed with rare chronic active EBV infection. You should contact your doctor if your symptoms don’t subside after two weeks, and especially after six months.

Keep in mind that though EBV is the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis, it is not the only possible cause. Other causal factors include cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A/B/C, HIV, rubella (measles), or adenovirus.

Since EBV’s symptoms are similar to many other minor illnesses, the best way to determine EBV infection is a blood test for antibodies specific to EBV. If these antibodies are present, it indicates the presence of EBV.

I have infectious mononucleosis; how do I know if it is from EBV?

Infectious mononucleosis is typically diagnosed from symptoms alone; however, sometimes it is necessary to determine the cause. In this case, testing with the following results may indicate EBV infection:

 

  • Abnormal white blood cells
  • Higher number of white blood cells than normal
  • Fewer neutrophils
  • Fewer platelets
  • Proteins/enzymes indicative of atypical liver function

 

Since it is a virus, there are not many options for treatment other than to reduce the symptoms. Pain killers and fever reducers such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen can reduce any body aches and control fever. Rest and proper hydration (water, electrolyte drinks) are useful approaches to managing the symptoms.

For pregnant women, acetaminophen can be taken to reduce fever and treat any body aches – avoid ibuprofen.

If I get infectious mononucleosis from EBV, is there a different treatment?

The answer depends on the severity of your sickness. Infectious mononucleosis will need to be monitored by your doctor and the same above measures taken to reduce the symptoms, as well as an extended resting period. If the infection negatively affects your organs (specifically the spleen and/or liver), your doctor may take steps to treat these as well. Because infectious mononucleosis can cause an enlarged spleen, do not participate in contact sports to avoid rupturing the spleen.

How can I avoid contracting or transmitting EBV and/or infectious mononucleosis?

Since the virus can pass in saliva and other bodily fluids, avoid kissing and sharing drinks, food, toothbrushes; also avoid anal, vaginal, or oral intercourse with someone you know has EBV, or if you have EBV.

Is treatment the same if I am pregnant and have EBV or infectious mononucleosis?

Typically, yes, the treatment will be the same. Acetaminophen should be used instead of ibuprofen to reduce fever and body/headaches. Rest and hydration are crucial, especially during pregnancy, since the developing fetus depends on having a hydrated and well-rested mother.

The biggest concerns would be (1) keeping any organ infection or damage to a minimum, and (2) ensuring that the mother’s temperature does not rise too high or stay high for too long. This is because the developing baby is more sensitive to temperature than the mother’s body is. High temperatures have the potential to cause miscarriage (first half of pregnancy), birth defects (first trimester), and/or preterm delivery (if fever is associated with infection of an organ).

Research since the 1980s has shown different answers to this question. Some studies show that there is no correlation between EBV reactivation during pregnancy and congenital disabilities or early delivery/low birth weight. More recently, one study demonstrated a link between significant EBV reactivation and early delivery and low birth weight. Another found a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms around week 32 and late EBV activation before delivery.

More research is needed on EBV activation and its effects on pregnancy and the fetus. Nearly all studies agree that EBV reactivation is not associated with fetal death. If we take high fever out of the equation, it is possible that EBV activation or infection during pregnancy could be related to early delivery and low birth weight.

Some studies reported infection with EBV of a newborn born to a mother with EBV, though the percentage was small. There is no clear indication of whether the virus is passed in utero or during delivery. Talk to your healthcare provider about any interventions he or she thinks is necessary to prevent transmission.

The good news is that, even if EBV is transmitted from you to your baby, EBV in infancy and childhood is typically asymptomatic, with few children seeing episodes of infection. Additionally, most people will have EBV by the time they are 35 years of age, the so chances are that your baby would someday contract EBV anyways.

Is it safe to breastfeed my baby if I have EBV and he/she does not?

Data shows that EBV can be present in breast milk, but there are no studies as of yet that determine if this results in transmission to the infant.

The best course of action is to speak with your doctor about your EBV status and how that affects your pregnancy and your baby after delivery.

 

Похожие статьи

О admin

Оставить комментарий

Этот сайт использует Akismet для борьбы со спамом. Узнайте как обрабатываются ваши данные комментариев.

x

Check Also

Menstruation: A Journey Through Your Cycle, APA

Menstruation: A Journey Through Your Cycle Home / Women's Health / Menstruation: A Journey Through Your Cycle Menstruation is the discharge of blood and tissue from the lining of your uterus that occurs at the beginning of your menstrual cycle.

Best Pregnancy Pillow For Pregnancy (VIDEO) Wellness Blog

Contents 5. Moonlight Slumber Comfort-U Total Body Support Pillow 6. Preggle Chic Jersey XL Extra Long Comfort Air-Flow Body Pillow Discover the Maternity Pregnancy Pillow Pros and Cons! JOIN THE APA NEWSLETTER Maternity Photo Shoot Ideas and Tips   Best Pregnancy Pillow For Pregnancy (VIDEO) W ho could have imagined sleep during pregnancy would become a challenge? Looks like a job for hands down the best pregnancy pillow.

HPV During Pregnancy: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Human Papillomavirus: HPV HPV During Pregnancy: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention HPV, the Genital Human Papillomavirus, is a viral infection that affects nearly 6,200,000 new individuals each year.

Health – Fitness Archives Wellness Blog

Category - Health & Fitness A great way to bond with your baby during pregnancy is to track your baby's development month by month. Labor and birth are the most anticipated part of a pregnancy.

Comité Asesor Médico

Contents Helpful Information Pregnancy Comité Asesor Médico La se compromete a proporcionar usted con la información más precisa y actualizada relacionada con su embarazo reproductiva, y las necesidades de salud sexual.

Premature Ovarian Failure: Premature Menopause

Contents Is there a difference between Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) and Menopause? What are the Symptoms for Premature Ovarian Failure (POF)? What are my options if I have Premature Ovarian Failure (POF)? Premature Ovarian Failure: Premature Menopause Home / Women's Health / Premature Ovarian Failure: Premature Menopause Approximately 1 in every 1000 women between the ages of 15-29 and 1 in every 100 women between the ages of 30-39 are affected by premature ovarian failure (POF) also called premature menopause.

Labor and Delivery Prenatal Classes (VIDEO), APA Wellness Blog

Contents JOIN THE APA NEWSLETTER Bonding with your Baby: Making the Most of the First Six Weeks   Labor and Delivery Prenatal Classes (VIDEO) This is part two of a three-part Prenatal Classes series by midwife Holliday Tyson.

Fibroid Tumors: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Contents Fibroid Tumors: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment What are the different types of fibroids in the uterus? What is the health concerns related to uterine fibroids? Fibroid Tumors; Fibroid Uterus Fibroid Tumors: Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment Fibroid tumors are usually undetected non-cancerous masses that grow in the uterus.

Breastfeeding Latch: Proper Positioning

Breastfeeding Latch The most important part of successful breastfeeding is the latch. If your baby is not properly latched on to your breast, feedings could be painful.

Yeast Infections

Yeast Infections A yeast infection occurs when the normal levels of acid and yeast in the vagina are out of balance and cause a very uncomfortable, but not serious, condition called a yeast infection.

Hives During Pregnancy: Causes, Treatment – Prevention

Hives During Pregnancy About 1 in 5 pregnant women experience changes in their skin during pregnancy, including acne, skin darkening, and stretch marks. Although women may feel self-conscious about these new “beauty marks,” skin changes during pregnancy are a normal occurrence.

Genital Herpes

Genital Herpes Genital herpes, also known as herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a viral infection that affects nearly 1,600,000 new individuals each year. Approximately 45 million Americans are currently infected with genital herpes.

Bonding with your Baby: Making the Most of the First Six Weeks Wellness Blog

Bonding with your Baby: Making the Most of the First Six Weeks It doesn’t matter whether you birthed your baby or received that blessing through adoption, it is amazing how many moms hold their newborn baby in their arms and then look up with that puzzled expression on their face and ask the question, now what? The good news is that moms often instinctually know what to do. Most of it is natural, and it comes out of a deep commitment to care and love for that fragile new creation.

Urinary Tract Infection – Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

Contents What are the signs and symptoms of urinary tract infections? How do I know if I have a urinary tract infection (UTI)? What is the treatment for urinary tract infections? Urinary Tract Infection: Bladder Infection Home / Women's Health / Urinary Tract Infection: Bladder Infection A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial inflammation in the urinary tract.

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), American Pregnancy on PMS

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) & Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) Home / Women's Health / Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) & Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) Approximately 85% of women who menstruate report changes in the days or weeks before their menstruation that cause problems that affect their normal lives.

Abnormal Pap Smear

Abnormal Pap Smear Women are encouraged to start getting yearly Pap smears at the age of 21 or within 3 years of becoming sexually active. Pap smears are not diagnostic tests, but they are screening tools used to find any abnormal cells or dysplasia in the cervix.

Donor Milk: Is It Safe?

Donor Milk Breastmilk is the prefect food for your baby, and the best breastmilk is your own. However, if you cannot provide breastmilk, donor milk may be available from your hospital or local milk bank.

Introducing the Bottle to Your Baby: Getting Started

Introducing the Bottle Once breastfeeding is going well, your baby can begin drinking your breast milk from a bottle. You should avoid feeding your baby with a bottle if there are any problems with nursing at your breast, because it can confuse your baby and increase the breastfeeding difficulties.

Tipped Uterus: Tilted Uterus

Tipped Uterus: Tilted Uterus The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a developing fetus will grow. The uterus is normally in a straight vertical position.

Gonorrhea

Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection that affects over 700,000 new individuals each year. The current number of cases is unknown. It is common for individuals infected to not have any symptoms.

Breastfeeding While Pregnant: Safety and Challenges

Breastfeeding While Pregnant Breastfeeding During Pregnancy: Safety and Challenges You may have just started adjusting to breastfeeding only to find out you are pregnant again.

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects nearly 73,000 new individuals each year. Approximately 1,250,000 people in the United States are carriers of this disease.

Nutrition During Breastfeeding

Nutrition During Breastfeeding Home / Breastfeeding / Nutrition During Breastfeeding To Breastfeed or Not to Breastfeed? If you are expecting, you are probably giving some thought to how you will feed your bundle of joy once she enters the world.

Ovarian Cancer Resources

Contents What are clinical trials and how can I enroll in one? I’ve been diagnosed with ovarian cancer. Where can I find help & support? Ovarian Cancer Resources If you’ve been diagnosed with ovarian cancer, you probably have a lot of questions.