What does ultrasound reveal during pregnancy?
Pregnancy is a special and rather difficult stage in the life of every woman. Modern environmental conditions, daily stresses, the pace of human life create completely different conditions of society than dozens of years ago, therefore, today we can not do without timely surveys. The technical achievements of the present time allow us to provide quality medical support for the entire course of pregnancy.
The most important among them is the use of ultrasound in pregnancy.
There is a certain category of women that are considered at risk for pregnancy, for which, in addition to the basic procedures of ultrasound, additional ones are also needed. This group includes women over 35 years old, as well as those pregnant women who have serious inherited diseases on their own line or through the husband’s line.
The risk group includes women who suffer from alcohol or drug dependence, or who have conceived from men with a similar dependence. All of these women have a risk of miscarriage of the fetus, which can be fixed only by ultrasound.
Diagnostic ultrasound is necessary in pregnancy for everyone, because it helps in time to recognize pathological abnormalities in the development of the fetus, the presence of signs of mental retardation and many serious diseases. In addition, with the help of ultrasound revealed various complications in the course of pregnancy, which, if detected in time, can be safely eliminated. In accordance with the state program of perinatal screening, all women observed during pregnancy in women’s consultations and medical institutions of the country should be directed to ultrasound examination at least 3 times for pregnancy.
Certainly, to force the patient to pass the examination, if she is categorically against, no one can. However, any sane person and future mother will do everything to control the condition of the fetus and her own organism during pregnancy.
The first planned US pregnancy should be performed at the 11-13 week of the obstetric period. It is during this period that the possible developmental defects become most clearly visible.
Namely: measured by TVP (thickness of the collar space) of the fetus and KTP (coccyx-parietal size). If the collar space is wider than 3 mm., This hints at the risk of genetic abnormalities.
The syndromes of Down and Edwards, the defect of the neural tube are detected with great accuracy precisely at the indicated times, while the CTE is within 45.85 mm.
In addition to these important indicators of the health of the fetus with the help of an ultrasound machine, the following points are considered: the presence and proper placement of all limbs, then how the spine is formed (whether there are clefts). Already visible organs: the heart, kidneys, stomach.
It is on the first ultrasound is determined reliably, whether the pregnancy is progressing, or it froze. After 16 weeks of gestation, the fetus can not be felt.
Identification of such features at the earliest possible time of pregnancy will help to select more correct tactics of its management, as well as to choose a specialized maternity hospital equipped with special equipment for nursing such children.
What are the developmental defects seen in ultrasound? As a rule, most of the existing ones are visualized already at week 14, and the 20th internal organs can be seen in detail. Heart defects, cleft lip and congenital joint dysplasia are caused by malfunctions in the formation of tissues and organs of the human body.
Such features as nezaraschenie sky (wolf mouth), multiplied and its most common variety - six fingers of one limb, as well as various hernias refer to anomalies that are compatible with life. However, the sooner parents learn about this, the more time they will have to prepare for the education of a special child, and such news will not become a shock for them.
Just a decade ago, one could only dream of interfering with the child before delivery. In this regard, many infants died, most of which with the help of modern medicine could be saved.
Now leading Russian clinics have equipment that allows not only to perform ultrasound diagnostics, but also intrauterine operations under ultrasound control.
So, the widespread defect of development - a hernia of a diaphragm - causes an underdevelopment of lungs and inability to independent breathing of the child after sorts. This complication is now subject to correction: with a pronounced discrepancy in lung fetal size, an operation is performed under the ultrasound sensor's control, which significantly reduces neonatal mortality.
Another reason to turn to intrauterine correction is the difficulty of outflow of urine in boys. Stenting the urinary bladder (kidneys) establishes the excretory function, and then the child has all the chances to be born healthy.
A phenomenon such as a teratoma (vascular tumor in the sacrum) may threaten to rupture during labor and cause miscarriage due to excessive pressure on the uterus. It also lends itself to surgical treatment.
Currently, as a result of the spread of IVF and hormonal methods of treating female infertility, cases of the appearance of twins have become more frequent. Twins' lives can be threatened by feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, which is detected on ultrasound in the second half of pregnancy.
Previously, most of these cases ended in sad or stillbirth, or with serious delays in the development of newborns. Now in 80% of successful surgical interventions a successful outcome is observed.
This unpleasant phenomenon, like the presence of a negative Rh factor in the mother (if it does not coincide with the child's factor) sometimes leads to the development of hemolytic disease of newborns. To save a baby can often only a blood transfusion.