Ultrasound in pregnancy
Each future mother, even with no health problems, during the pregnancy several times undergoes ultrasound – ultrasound.
The doctor is an obstetrician-gynecologist, FGU of the National Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology. acad. IN AND. Kulakov Rosmedtechnology, Moscow
The principle of ultrasound diagnosis is reduced to the ability of tissues to reflect the ultrasonic waves sent to them. Thus, ultrasound is sent to the tissues first, then ultrasound is sent to the tissues, then it is reflected with varying intensity from tissues of different density, then the reflected ultrasound signals are computer processed and a flat image is formed on the monitor screen.
Below we will discuss how, when and why ultrasound is used during pregnancy.
What are ultrasound for? At present, in obstetrics, two methods of performing ultrasound are used: transabdominal (the sensor is placed on the front abdominal wall) and transvaginal (a special sensor is inserted into the patient’s vagina). In this case, pregnant women before the ultrasound using an abdominal sensor do not need to fill the bladder, as with the development of pregnancy in the uterine cavity accumulates a small amount of fluid, thanks to which it is possible to consider the embryo and chorion (the future placenta).
Transvaginal ultrasound also does not require special training and allows more detailed consideration of the structure of the uterus and ovaries, as well as the developing placenta. The use of this method is possible up to 10-12 weeks of pregnancy, since further the fetus is actively growing, and it is difficult to evaluate its condition, therefore it is expedient to use transabdominal examination.
When ultrasound is used a special gel, which is applied to the anterior abdominal wall before the beginning of the study. It not only improves the sensor’s contact with the soft tissues of the area under investigation, but also contributes to the better passage of the ultrasonic wave, which results in a clear image.
The safety of conducting ultrasound studies has been discussed for a long time. It was established that ultrasound does not have a negative effect on fetal development. Ultrasound can exert a biological effect on tissues by mechanical and thermal effects, but in modern obstetrics sensors with a frequency of wave radiation are used, which does not cause significant changes in tissues.
At the same time, the amount of information a doctor can obtain about a developing fetus is incomparable to any other method of research. Ultrasound helps in time to recognize and, if possible, prevent serious illnesses both in the mother and the baby, and, if necessary, possibly more frequently.
The use of ultrasound, when used judiciously, exceeds all doubts about possible potential risk.
Ultrasound screening Is a study that is conducted with a preventive purpose (even if the expectant mother does not bother) to identify possible abnormalities during pregnancy. The first study is carried out at 10-14 weeks, the second at 20-24 weeks, the third at 32-34 weeks of gestation.