Vitamins for dinner: how to choose and take?
Everyone knows that vitamins are an important part of a full-fledged diet. From the abundance of multivitamin complexes on the shelves of pharmacies, the eyes run out.
How to choose the most suitable one? And is it always necessary to take an additional intake of synthetic vitamins?
Therapeutist, researcher at the State Research Center for Prophylactic Medicine of the Federal Agency for Health Care, Ph.D. honey. science
Vitamins (translated from Latin necessary for life) are organic substances that are indispensable components of our nutrition. By themselves, vitamins are not part of the body tissues, they are not a source of energy.
However, vitamins are the activators of many biochemical reactions that ensure the normal course of the physiological processes of respiration, circulation, digestion, immunity, growth, etc.
Along with mineral substances, vitamins belong to micronutrients, because they are required in minimal doses. Vitamins are not synthesized by the human body and must come from outside. According to the Institute of Nutrition of the RAMS, even the diet balanced by the main nutrients (macronutrients) – proteins, fats and carbohydrates – the diet is deficient by 20-30% in the content of vitamins, especially vitamins A, E, C and B vitamins. This deficit practically does not decrease even in such vitamin seasons as summer and autumn.
With prolonged use of vitamin D in high doses in the heart muscle, the walls of the vessels, in the lungs, intestines, calcium salts are deposited, disrupting the work of these organs.
However, at present they refuse to use megadoses of water-soluble vitamins. So high doses of ascorbic acid cause overexcitation of the nervous system ,. Increasing the daily dose of vitamin C to 1-1.5 grams per day causes depression of immunity, increases the risk of formation of oxalic acid stones in the kidneys (oxalates), the development of inflammation of the bladder - ascorbic cystitis.
Therefore, hyperdoses of vitamin C are absolutely forbidden in kidney stones, pregnancy, diabetes and some other diseases. The maximum dose of ascorbic that the human body can absorb is 100 mg per day.
According to the recommendations of nutritionists, the need for additional introduction of trace elements is a very controversial issue. To determine the deficit of a micronutrient, it is necessary to analyze several biosubstrates of the human body: blood, urine, bile, cerebrospinal fluid, hair, skin, etc. The research is promoted by the State Sanitary Epidemiological Supervision Service, the Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and is conducted in a number of commercial medical centers.
The procedure that determines the microelement composition of substrates of the human body is very expensive.
It is more preferable if calcium ascorbate, and not sodium, is included in the composition of the complex. Increased sodium intake is undesirable with increased blood pressure, kidney disease, water-salt metabolism, often in pregnancy and lactation.
Calcium deficiency is very common and many times exceeds the sodium deficiency, so the use of calcium ascorbate helps to eliminate not only the lack of vitamin C, but also calcium. Minerals do not always get along well with vitamins and with each other.
Zinc can interfere with the absorption of calcium, iron and molybdenum displace copper, manganese-magnesium. Copper competes with zinc and molybdenum.
In addition, iron and copper oxidize vitamins A and E, weakening their effect. Copper destroys ascorbic acid, so their combination in one tablet is unsuccessful.
On the other hand, vitamin E improves the work of selenium, manganese improves the absorption of vitamins A and C, and biotin minimizes possible skin reactions when zinc is prescribed.
Water-soluble vitamins are better absorbed when taken 30-60 minutes before meals. They should be washed down with water. As the name implies, fats are needed to assimilate fat-soluble vitamins.
Therefore, the most active absorption of vitamins A, D, E and K occurs when taking vitamin complexes during meals or after meals. Polyvitaminic complexes, as a rule, contain both water- and fat-soluble vitamins and are used to correct polyhypovitaminosis states (lack of several vitamins). Since the absorption of water-soluble vitamins does not deteriorate when eating, usually containing a sufficient amount of water, then multivitamin preparations are recommended to be taken with food.
Mineral substances in the form of monopreparations should be taken separately from vitamins, at other times of the day. With the preventive intake of vitamin preparations, the course of treatment is usually 1-2 months.
With constant or prolonged exposure to factors that increase the need for vitamins (in heavy physical work, sports, living in adverse climatic conditions, etc.), the duration of the course increases to 2-4 months and is determined by the attending physician.
Usually, 1-3 courses of vitamin therapy are administered per year. According to some reports, due to the expressed vitamin deficiency in many categories of Russian residents, the prophylactic intake of vitamin and mineral complexes (doses of components should not exceed the daily requirement) is recommended throughout the autumn-winter-spring period (throughout the school year). This is especially important for children, adolescents, elderly, pregnant and lactating people, vegetarians and people who adhere to different diets, when smoking and alcohol abuse, with increased physical or mental stress.
The intake of vitamins, especially fat-soluble, capable of accumulation, for therapeutic purposes should be carried out under strict medical supervision. Usually the course of treatment lasts no more than 21 days, but, depending on the situation, can be increased (at the physician's discretion).