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Hypoplasia of the kidney: symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment

Hypoplasia of the kidney

Hypoplasia of the kidney Is a congenital malformation of the development, in which the kidney is reduced in size. With hypoplasia, kidney cells (nephrons) have an absolutely normal structure and retain all their functions, but their total number is reduced by more than two times compared with the norm.

The most common one-sided hypoplasia of the kidney. Interestingly, this disorder occurs in males twice as often as in females.

Hypoplasia of the kidneys can arise as a result of violations of the development of the fetus, which can be caused by both external and internal factors. External factors are various adverse effects that have a negative effect on the body of a pregnant woman and the formation of fetal organs – organogenesis.

These include:

  • Drinking alcoholic beverages;
  • Smoking;
  • Some medicines;
  • Ionizing radiation;
  • Prolonged compression of the uterus;
  • Some diseases (toxoplasmosis, influenza, rubella, etc.).

Internal factors that can lead to the formation of kidney hypoplasia are the violations (anomalies) of the primary division of the embryo cells.

If a person has hypoplasia of only one kidney, then the disease does not show itself. For example, in a patient with a hypoplasia of the left kidney, under the condition of normal functioning of the right kidney, there will be no symptoms, and this defect can be detected only when an ultrasound is performed.

Reduced kidney is often affected by pyelonephritis (inflammatory disease). In this case, patients complain of an increase in body temperature, chills, severe pain in the lumbar region.

Long-flowing pyelonephritis leads to the gradual death of nephrons and replacement of their connective (scar tissue) tissue. In this case, the kidney wrinkles, and its function is lost.

In addition, there is compression of the renal artery, which leads to a persistent increase in blood pressure – arterial hypertension.

Bilateral hypoplasia of the kidneys is much less common. In this case, as a rule, hypoplasia of the right kidney is more pronounced.

With a significant decrease in the size of the kidneys, the patient develops chronic renal failure – increases the blood urea and creatinine content, reduces the amount of urine released, there is a persistent increase in blood pressure.

It is possible to suspect hypoplasia of the kidneys during an ultrasound examination, during which a decrease in the size of this organ is revealed. To clarify the diagnosis and conduct differential diagnosis it is recommended to undergo excretory urography, angiography of the kidney vessels, retrograde urethropyelography.


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