Hypoplasia of teeth
Hypoplasia of the tooth is called a special developmental defect, in which its tissues remain underdeveloped. The extreme degree of hypoplasia is the complete absence of a tooth – aplasia, but this pathology is rare.
Much more often, dentists need to face tooth enamel hypoplasia.
Underdevelopment of individual tissues of the tooth or the whole tooth as a whole arises as a result of exposure to the body of the fetus or the infant of various adverse factors.
Hypoplasia of infant teeth can result from:
- some infectious diseases transferred by a pregnant woman – for example, influenza, toxoplasmosis, ARVI, rubella, etc .;
- diseases of the digestive system in a future mother – colitis, enteritis, gastritis, duodenitis;
- prematurity or birth trauma of a newborn;
- perinatal encephalopathy;
- artificial feeding;
- hemolytic disease of newborns;
- congenital heart diseases.
Hypoplasia of infant teeth is observed in almost half of children suffering from any chronic allergic diseases or diseases that occur with a metabolic disorder that occur in the first months of the baby’s life.
Hypoplasia of permanent teeth can occur in a child under the influence of the following factors:
- severe childhood infectious diseases;
- suppurative diseases and pneumonia;
- severe leaking exudative diathesis and other manifestations of allergy;
- diseases of the digestive system;
- kidney disease;
- Iron-deficiency anemia;
- Thyroid gland diseases.
Hypoplasia of the teeth can be systemic – when several teeth are ill at once, or local, when only one tooth is affected.
Hypoplasia of tooth enamel can be recognized by the following symptoms:
- change in the color of the enamel of the affected teeth;
- underdevelopment of enamel;
- complete absence of enamel, on some single site or on the entire surface of the tooth.
An easy degree of hypoplasia of the enamel of the baby teeth is expressed in the appearance on the tooth surface of white, sometimes with a yellowish tinge, spots that have the same size and clearly delineated boundaries. Exactly the same manifestations have hypoplasia of the enamel of permanent teeth.
The disease of moderate severity, as a rule, is expressed by the following signs:
- Wavy enamel – when examining the tooth surface, small rollers and indentations are found on it.
- Point enamel – in the layer of the tooth enamel there are pinholes.
- Boricle enamel – on the crown of the tooth there is a single transverse groove.
- Stair enamel – differs from grooved in that there are several transverse depressions.