Congenital maldevelopment of bones (their small size) is called hypoplasia of bone tissue. Hypoplasia can affect any bones of the human skeleton.
Therefore, depending on what kind of bone is underdeveloped, different forms of the disease are distinguished. For example, hypoplasia of the bones of the base of the nose, hypoplasia of the fingers, hips,
Hypoplasia of bones occurs during fetal development. To lead to the development of this pathology can some genetic diseases, as well as the impact on the organism of a pregnant woman of some negative factors, for example, such as:
- ionizing radiation;
- use of narcotic and toxic substances;
- industrial toxins;
- diseases (influenza, rubella, toxoplasmosis).
Underdevelopment of the bones of the skull is manifested by deformities of the face and head. With unilateral hypoplasia of the lower jaw, the chin is displaced and its contour is smoothed from the affected side. If there is a bilateral underdevelopment of the lower jaw, then the chin is displaced back.
At a hypoplasia of zygomatic bones there is a backward displacement of the upper jaw and exophthalmos – a pop-eyed.
Any type of hypoplasia of the bones of the facial part of the skull leads to violations of the occlusion, restriction of the opening of the mouth and violation of breathing – snoring, stopping breathing in a dream. As the child grows, these defects increase even more, causing a significant deformation of the face. This, in turn, leads to the formation of an inferiority complex in the child.
Therefore, a child with this disease must be treated.
In recent years, in all civilized countries in the conduct of ultrasound in pregnant women, doctors measure the size of the fetal nasal bones.
This is due to the fact that hypoplasia of the nasal bone in the fetus is one of the signs of Down syndrome and some other genetic diseases, as well as mental retardation.
At the same time, research is very important that it is performed on modern equipment with good resolution and, naturally, carried out by an experienced specialist. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to perform exact measurements of the parameters of the nasal bone, because its dimensions are very small.
However, hypoplasia of the bones of the nose in the fetus is not a cause for panic. It is simply necessary to undergo additional studies, the results of which very often dispel all anxiety and anxiety.
After all, each person is individual and perhaps a small nose – this is just a feature of your unborn child!
It is only possible to speak about any developmental defects if, in addition to hypoplasia of the nose, other pathologies are also revealed in the fetus – for example, the absence or shortening of the limbs, the defects of the internal organs.