Heart disease in newborns: we study the stages of the development of a congenital defect and the ways of its treatment
The cardiovascular system of the embryo is formed during the period from the second to the eighth week of intrauterine development. Any negative factors affecting the body of a pregnant woman can lead to the development of serious pathologies. So, due to environmental problems in the last decade, the risk of congenital heart disease has reached a statistical point of 0.1% of the total number of newborns. A quarter of children born with a defect in the work of the heart muscle, the diagnosis is hidden and is found only in the first year of life or later.
Usually confirmation of pregnancy occurs after the third week from the moment of fertilization, that is, when the heart and vessels of the baby are already beginning to form. A woman who does not know about the actual change in her physical condition continues to lead a habitual way of life and stay in an environment that does not correspond to the existing situation. A future mother can take alcohol, be exposed to radioactive radiation, inhale vapors of toxic substances and at the same time not to suspect that all these harmful circumstances are already beginning to affect the construction of the heart muscle and the vascular pattern of the baby.
Operations on the heart cavities in children are conducted in two directions. Minimally invasive intervention can also serve as an independent action, eliminating the underlying problem and as a preliminary preparation for open heart surgery. The procedure is performed through miniature punctures in the walls of the vessels without opening the chest. Most often, an operation of this kind implies the establishment of an occluder that covers the defective area.
Surgery on the open heart is accompanied by the work of a fully staffed surgical team with an experienced cardiosurgeon physician who coordinates the entire course of the process.
Among the procedures for the treatment of congenital malformations, a small percentage of those who can not significantly change the position of the sick child for the better, only temporarily relieve its condition, prolonging life for a certain period. Such treatment is called palliative, and the need for it occurs in conditions characterized by complete absence or irreparable damage to specific parts of the heart.
Heart disease in newborns is a pathology that is not cured by time. Even if there is no need for surgical treatment, the patient must be observed at the doctor's office throughout his life and undergoing maintenance medication. In the absence of proper treatment or incompetence of the lead specialist, there is a risk of complications, some of which are not compatible with the normal way of life of the child:
- frequent damage to the body by various infections;
- tonsillitis, tonsillitis;
- development of rheumatism.