Children’s immunity: features of formation, signs and causes of impaired work
Why does the child have weak immunity? To understand this issue, we collected information that explains the principle of work, the features of the formation of immunity in children and the reasons for its decrease in children under one year and older children. Still from the article, parents learn by what signs it can be determined that the child has weak immunity.
When various viral or bacterial infections make their way into the human body, they begin to wage an active struggle with them. The ability of the immune system to fight various types of infections that enter the body is called immunity.
Immunity is a combination of physiological processes and mechanisms aimed at preserving the antigenic homeostasis of an organism from biologically active substances and creatures carrying genetically foreign antigen information or from genetically alien protein agents.
Distinguished congenital (specific) and acquired immunity . Species (congenital, hereditary) immunity is inherited by the baby. Acquired immunity accumulates throughout the life of a person and is divided into natural and artificial.
- When it works cellular specific immune response , clones of lymphocytes are formed, which tend to destroy targets, in the membranes of which contain foreign materials, such as cellular proteins. Cellular immunity helps to eliminate viral infections, as well as certain types of bacterial infections (eg, tuberculosis). In addition, activated lymphocytes are an active weapon against cancer cells.
- Specific humoral immune response acts through B-lymphocytes. After the microbe is recognized, they actively synthesize antibodies by the principle of one type of antigen - one type of antibody. During all infectious diseases antibodies are always being developed. The humoral immune response develops within a few weeks, it is during this time that the body forms the necessary amount of immunoglobulins in order to completely neutralize the focus of infection. Clones of lymphocytes are able to remain in the body for a long time, so when they come into contact with microorganisms they give a powerful immune response.
There are several types of antibodies (immunoglobulins):
- Antibodies of type A (IgA) are needed to ensure local immunity. They try not to allow the penetration of microbes through the skin or mucous membranes.
- Antibodies of type M (IgM) Activated immediately after the child had contact with the infection. They are able to bind several microbes at the same time. If antibodies of type M (IgM) were detected during a blood test, then they are evidence of the emergence and proliferation of an acute infectious process in the body.
- Immunoglobulins of type G (IgG) can protect the body from the penetration of various microorganisms for a long time.
- Antibodies of type E (IgE) ; protection of the body from the entry of microbes and their poisons through the skin.