Hemolytic disease of newborns
Each person at birth has a certain blood group: A (second), B (third), AB (fourth), or zero (0- first). Letters are used to refer to various antigens that are contained in the blood of a particular person. In addition to these antigens, in the blood of 85% of people there are so-called Rh-antigens or Rh factor. There are several types of Rh antigens. They are denoted by the letters D, E and C or symbols Rh o, Rh rsquo ;, Rh. If the blood does not contain Rh-antigen, then they say about the Rh-negative factor. In the presence of Rh-antigen, the blood is considered Rh-positive. At present, several groups of blood antigens are known, which are designated by the names of scientists (for example, Kidd, Kell, Duffy).
Hemolytic disease of newborns Is a disease that is caused by the incompatibility of the blood of the mother and fetus over various antigens. More often it develops with incompatibility by Rh-factor: if mother rhesus-negative, and the fetus is Rh-positive. In case of group incompatibility, the mother often has the blood group 0 (I), and the fetus – the other. But very rarely can hemolytic disease of newborns occur when other blood antigens do not coincide (except for the group and Rh factor).
Hemolytic disease of Rh-conflict is a serious and dangerous disease that occurs in 99% of women with negative rhesus. The process of the onset of the disease is very simple: during pregnancy through the placenta from the fetus to the mother penetrate the Rh antigens. In response to this intrusion, the maternal blood produces Rh-antibodies to kill the Rh-positive red blood cells of the fetus, damaging its liver and spleen, blood-forming organs, bone marrow. The destruction of erythrocytes leads to the accumulation in the tissues of the fetus bilirubin, which is very toxic to the brain of the fetus and the newborn.