Sanguineolesis is a parasitic disease of aquarium fish, which is caused by a flatworm of the genus Saguinicola. To date, the fish were able to detect a dozen species of this parasite.
Problems with the inaccuracy of this minor figure may indicate that there are still no all described parasite species.
Aquarium fish in our countries, as a rule, affects a parasite called Sanguinicola inermis, first described by the German ichthyopathologist M. Plen. In appearance, the worm is transparent in appearance and lanceolate.
On the surface of the body there are tiny bristles that can only be viewed with a multiple magnification of the microscope.
In natural waters, the parasite was found in carp, carp, tench and crucian carp; in aquarium fish, most often these parasites were found in goldfish of almost all varieties. After the parasite has settled in the bloodstream of the fish, the worm begins to release triangular-shaped eggs that are carried by blood through the capillaries to the kidneys and gills. From the triangular egg, the miracidian larva, which has cilia and a pigment eye, is born.
When the capillaries in the gills are broken, the larva gets into the water and immediately goes in search of a mollusk, which will serve as an intermediate host for it.
After being introduced into the body of the mollusk, the miracidian larva conducts a spectrum of transformations that have much in common with asexual reproduction, after which several larvae will appear. When the larvae leave the body of the mollusk, cercariae begin to actively search for their potential victims – aquarium fish, on which they attack.
The life span of cercariae in water is due to its temperature: they live for about 30 hours at a water temperature of 20 degrees, up to 40 hours at a temperature of 16 degrees, and two days at a temperature of 12 degrees.
After the cercaria attaches to the victim’s gill apparatus, it begins to actively destroy the walls of the blood vessels of the gills, then penetrates into them and turns into a full-fledged parasite worm. Then the parasite’s life cycle will repeat: a mature worm that is in the circulatory system releases eggs, which are carried through the bloodstream through the body of the fish. Ultimately, they accumulate in the thinnest blood vessels, and ultimately clog them.
On the basis of the blockage of blood vessels by the eggs of the parasite and determine the clinical signs of the disease caused. From this we can conclude: which organ has suffered, on the basis of this, the renal and gill-like forms of the disease are excreted:
- Gill form peculiar more small fish. Gills become marble, due to the deterioration of blood flow in the gill petals. Damage to the gill blood vessels provokes the development of saprolegnic fungi, which ultimately provokes a secondary development of the disease called saprolegniosis. In the appearance of saprolegnaic fungi, the fish begin to experience choking symptoms.
- The renal form of the disease is more characteristic of adults and large fish. With a severe form of the disease, dropsy, ruffling of scales and, in rare cases, bilateral glazing, may appear on the body. A more accurate diagnosis can be made only after a thorough examination under the microscope of the gill apparatus, blood vessels and kidneys. But, studying a sick fish under a microscope cannot give a full guarantee that you will find miracidia and parasite eggs, since due to the high transparency they can simply be overlooked.
If you properly understand the life cycle of the parasite, then you can understand that the disease is actively developing in the aquarium only if there are mollusks-pond snails in the ground, because sanguinosis does not develop as a result of direct contact of the sick fish with healthy ones. However, the pathogen can be entered into the aquarium together with live food from a natural reservoir, where representatives of the carp family and mollusks-prudoviki live, which are the main and intermediate hosts for the parasite.
Unfortunately, there are still no working methods for the treatment of this disease. Therefore, you can only rely on prevention: in one aquarium with fish you can not put mollusks pond snails, live food, plants and soil from natural reservoirs, where a large number of representatives of the carp family lives.
In addition, do not forget to keep fish in quarantine, and the decorations and plants are properly processed before immersion in a home aquarium.