Novice aquarists, paying more attention to the fish, completely forget about caring for plants, because of this, they stop growing, start to hurt and slowly bend down. In order to prevent the death of greenery, it is better to timely identify and treat the disease.
Let’s talk a little about the most common diseases of aquarium plants, the causes and methods of treatment.
Each aquarium plant for full growth requires certain optimal conditions of detention. Their non-observance often leads to illnesses.
The most common causes of disease are as follows:
- water quality (chemical composition);
- improper filtration and insufficient water change;
- violation of the temperature regime leads to a slowdown of metabolic processes, and the plant will stop growing;
- insufficient or abundant level of illumination;
- root disease, their blackening occurs from improperly selected soil, its density (too dense soil leads to deformation of the roots and stems, especially in young shoots);
- the presence of parasites and other inhabitants;
- the quality and quantity of top dressing;
- imbalance of micro and macronutrients;
- planting density.
The aquarium flora quickly reacts with stress to changing conditions: changes color, fades, and rots.
To determine what exactly the plants need, you need to carefully examine them. If growth just stopped, but the leaves do not lose their color and do not fall off, then perhaps a new soil is simply required.
This mainly occurs 2 years after its replacement.
Illnesses associated with lighting and water temperature
Signs of lack of lighting:
- pale coloration;
- loss of lower leaflets;
- thin stems, as the plants try to stretch out towards the light;
- elongated internodes;
- small leaves.
- enhance lighting;
- thin out, if necessary, the diseased species and other plants, if they block access of light;
- feed, if the leaves began to shallow.
The excess of light leads to the fact that the upper parts of the leaves are stretched in length. In this case, reduce the power of the lamps.
An important role is played by the temperature of the water, its sharp decrease leads to the death of the flora, it simply freezes. Increased temperature of the water accelerates the processes of synthesis.
And this, in turn, requires the supply of a significant amount of carbon dioxide and, consequently, an increase in the power of illumination. There is a rule: the higher the water temperature, the more powerful the lighting.
With a shortage of nitrogen, growth slows down, the leaves become a brown-yellow shade with yellow veins. This disease is called nitrogen starvation. Reduce the temperature and add 4 mg of nitrogen per liter 4 times a month.
The lack of phosphorus can be stated with a strong darkening and twisting of young leaves and shoots. Appeared brown spots on the leaves gradually turn into holes.
The standard application rate is 10 mg per 1 liter, 4 times a month.
You can observe the lack of potassium on the leaves with signs of chlorosis. The addition of 10 mg of potassium per liter to water will help to cope with potassium deficiency.
If there are light spots on the leaves, but the leaves do not die off, then most likely it is a lack of magnesium. Bring 5 mg of element per liter.
Depending on the severity of the disease, the procedure is repeated from 2 to 4 times a month.
When boron deficiency is observed chlorosis of young leaves from the edges and base, blackening of the apex points of growth. Treat with the addition of 0.1 mg / 1 l, 2-3 times a month.
A sign of a lack of manganese is the appearance of small light and brown spots on the leaves. Treat with the addition of manganese with the same dosage and regularity as with a shortage of boron.
Signs of a lack of calcium are twisted yellowed leaves with twisted to the top edges, as well as blackening of growth points. Shortage compensate in a proportion of 10 mg / liter.
Pale green or yellow color of the leaves with white areas between the veins is found in plants with iron deficiency. With such a diagnosis, it is recommended to add 0.1 mg of substance per liter of water 2-3 times a month.
The lack of copper in the water is characterized by blanching of the entire lamina, the plant begins to thrive. 0.05 mg of copper per liter, 3 times a month, is added to the water.
The lack of carbon dioxide is observed in plants, on the leaves of which appeared calcareous. Perhaps this is due to the wrong ratio of the number of fish and plants.
You can get out of this situation by adding a few more fish or adding ordinary sparkling water.
Primitive organisms are present in every aquarium. Algae are not parasites for flora, they are its competitors, hindering growth.
In this case, the alga is seen as a threat to plant life.
Very small globular plants, which in the course of their growth form a slimy growth, bright green color on the aquarium glass and stones. They are removed with a kitchen sponge.
Usually they appear on the most lighted areas of the aquarium, on the sunny side, and represent a dense layer of threadlike leaves of dark green color. They can also be removed with a kitchen sponge.
The coils consisting of the thinnest threads, mucous to the touch and having a light green color. Remove them by winding them into a match or any rough surface.
They are characterized by a short period of rapid development, after which their growth slows down significantly, and then they disappear altogether from the aquarium.
This type of algae usually grows on hard surfaces (plant leaves, stones and snags). In the process of growth, Kladofor forms branching bushes from greenish to gray in color, about 2-3 cm in size.
They are plucked out with tweezers.
There is a wide variety of algae microscopic size, which are suspended in water and give aquarium water a greenish, yellow-green or brown color. Method of destruction: full blackout aquarium for a few days.
A possible method of combating these algae is also living daphnia, which in large quantities must be released into the aquarium, or snails that eat algae.
They look like green ones. Their most famous representative is filamentous alga (Spirogyra), which, with its very long and thin threads, entangles all aquarium plants like a web.
Usually this is observed in very bright light. Struggling reeling them on a stick and tearing off.
Sometimes it happens that these algae for no reason suddenly disappear themselves.
Able to cover all plants, stones, soil and glass in a very short time with a very slimy and foul-smelling coating. Usually they develop in strong light and in the presence of nitrogenous compounds in the water, which are caused by dirty water and soil.
As a control measure, it is necessary to siphon the soil and replace at least 1/3 of the aquarium water with fresh water with similar parameters.
Chemical methods of dealing with blue-green algae:
– Penicillin in a concentration of 10,000 units. for 1 liter of water, and in two days 2 500 units. on 1 l of water;
– A solution of 3% boric acid in the proportion of 30 ml per 100 l of water;
– crushed and dissolved streptomycin in water in a proportion of 3 mg per 1 liter of water;
– Repeated change of the total volume of aquarium water (fish are previously removed);
– The aquarium is darkened and every evening, for 3 days, a solution of bicillin-5 is diluted in water in a proportion of 10,000 units. on 1 l of water.
After these events, for the next week, 1/3 of the aquarium water is replaced every 2 days.
They usually appear in low light and are brown flooring formed on the leaves of plants, the walls of the aquarium and the ground. To combat these algae, it is necessary to increase the light intensity.
Red algae, or crimson (Rhodophyceae)
Characterized by accelerated development and the ability to grow over a short period of time over the entire area of the aquarium. In order to distinguish green algae from red, you need to put them in alcohol or acetone.
Green algae at the same time completely discolored, and red retain their color.
Small tassels of dark green, almost black color, 1.5-2 cm long, which are tightly attached to the leaves of plants, occupying more and more of its area.
To combat Vietnamese, you can take the following actions:
– supply of CO2, from which the Vietnamese dies;
– the use of water with a hardness of dH from 8 ° and above, with a daily test of soil and the substitution of ¼ of water for fresh with similar parameters.
It looks like long (up to 15 cm) slightly branched threads of dark green, almost black color. To combat them, reduce the acidity of the water pH to 3.6 and add hydrochloric acid dropwise to the water filter.
After about 12 hours, all the water in the aquarium is completely replaced. Naturally, before carrying out these works, all fish should be transplanted from the aquarium.
Another trouble that aquarists face is aphid on floating plants, which feeds on their juice, slows growth and can lead to death. A pest appears when ill-arranged lighting, thickened plantings, and carbon dioxide deficiency.
In order to get rid of aphids, infected plants must be transferred to another container in quarantine. It is very important that the vessel is in the shade, as most often the lack of lighting and high humidity is enough to get rid of the pest.
To speed up the process, you can spray the plants with a solution of copper sulphate (1 g), soap (20 g) and water (1 l).
Now you know that the imbalance of nutrients, improper lighting, thickened plantings, poor aeration and filtration can lead to diseases of vegetation. Proper care of the aquarium, timely replacement of water and the introduction of fertilizing are the best preventive measures to prevent the occurrence of ailments and pests.