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Diseases of aquarium fish: their symptoms, treatment and prevention

Diseases of fish living at home, as a rule, arise suddenly. If you carefully watch the pets, you can easily recognize the first signs of common diseases.

Aquarium fish can get sick suddenly, so you need to watch them.

If it is impossible to determine the disease, they seek help from laboratory diagnostics. Most diseases can be cured easily and quickly without harm to aquarium fish.

Ichthyopathology is a scientific discipline studying diseases of aquarium fish. Their treatment is not always successful, but possible. Ailments are classified into the following types:

  • infectious, which are divided into infectious and invasive;
  • non-infectious.

Infectious diseases excite unicellular organisms: viruses, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. Invasive cause worms and arthropods (multicellular animals).

Fish diseases can be contagious or not contagious.

Non-contagious diseases result from chemical or physical damage. This is due to poor quality care and conditions of fish. Bad care means:

  • violation of temperature;
  • poor water;
  • toxic substances entering the aquarium;
  • improper feeding;
  • poor nutrition.

Physical damage caused by the arrangement of the aquarium. It is enough to provide pets with proper care and the likelihood of illness will be reduced.

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If there is uncertainty in the diagnosis, it is recommended to visit a veterinarian. Laboratory tests will help in the diagnosis of aquarium fish diseases.

Appointment of drugs for several diseases at once or self-treatment is prohibited.

  1. Branchomycosis. Fungi are caused by Branhomycez sanguinis and Branhomycez Demigrans. The fish is on the surface and gasping for air. Ceases to eat and quickly perishes. After opening the diseased aquarium pet, the red-and-white color of the gills resembling a mosaic is noticeable. Treatment – sodium salt of nystatin and levorin, copper sulfate and formalin.
  2. The fins rot. Cause bacteria Pseudomonas, manifested rotting fins. Occurs from low water temperature and from violation of biological equilibrium. Treatment – trypaflavin (1: 10,000), morfocycline and silver nitrate.
  3. Ichthyophonosis. Appears because of the fungus Ichthyophonus. They recognize by ulcers on the body, dead fins and inaccurate movements. The treatment is not effective, it is recommended to destroy the infected fish. The aquarium should be cleaned with disinfectants, not forgetting the gloves.

The fade rot develops due to the appearance of bacteria

  • Lepidorthosis. Cause bacteria Aeromonas punctate and Pseudomonas fluorescence. At the onset of the disease, the fish swims fussily, the scales become taller and stick in different directions, resembling a lump. Treatment – salt solution, morfocycline, potassium permanganate and silver nitrate.
  • Saprolegniosis. The culprits are the fungi of the Saprolegniacea and Ahlia family. Recognize the areas of white fleecy plaque on the body of the fish. It is a fungus that grows into the skin and creates dead spots. Treatment – bluestone, sodium salt of nystatin and levorin, formalin, purple K and nitrate silver.
  • Tuberculosis. It starts with the bacteria Mycobacterium and Nocardia. Ulcers appear on the body, eyes become bulging, appearance changes. The treatment is useless, experts advise to dispose of the fish and sanitize the aquarium. It is recommended to wear gloves, as the disease is dangerous for humans.
  • Ulcer. The causative agent is Pseudomonas fluorescence. The fish is disturbed by small wounds all over the body, which are penetrated by fungi and aggravate the condition until death. Treatment – trypaflavin, potassium permanganate.
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    Diseases caused by parasites or multicellular animals are considered infectious. They also belong to infectious diseases, but belong to another group – invasive. These aquarium fish diseases and symptoms are the most common:

    1. Argulosis. It begins with the appearance of the gill-tailed crustaceans of Argulus, which fall with food, soil or plants. The first signs are chaotic swimming of fish and weight loss. In this case, the crustaceans are clearly visible, and where they stick to the body, ulcers appear with bruising. Treatment – Lysol, formalin, blue vitriol and silver nitrate.
    2. Botriocephalosis. Ribbon helminth Botriocephalus causes intestinal blockage. The infected fish floats to the surface, refuses to eat, is exhausted and dies. Often distributed in the summer when feeding with Cyclops. The treatment is kamala, fenasal or phenothiazine.
    3. Gyrodactylosis. The culprits – helminths Gyrodactylus elegans and Medius. It begins with a change in color – there is a spotting and fading of the skin, a gray-blue plaque is rapidly growing. Ulcers appear on the body and fins. Often there are dropsy, puyeglaziy and uplift of scales. Treatment – potassium permanganate, formalin, copper sulfate.

    Parasitic diseases occur in fish most often.

  • Glügea Caused by the influence of dispute Glugea. The eyes of the fish become bulging, the body is covered with nodules, the pet prefers to swim on its side. The treatment does not respond – the fish is destroyed, the aquarium is disinfected.
  • Ichthyophthyriosis. The causative agent is the equilicular ciliate Ichthyoftirius multiphiliis. The fish is covered with small white balls and floats on the surface of the water, gasping for air. Treatment – malachite and brilliant green, purple K.
  • Cariofillosis. It is provoked by the tapeworm Kariofillus fimbrips, which settles in the middle of the intestine and clogs its tract. From this fish dies. It is infected, absorbing the affected pipemaker. Treatment – kamala, a special powder from the fern of thyroid gland (rhizome and rudimentary leaves in a dry form).
  • Coccidiosis It is triggered by the intracellular parasite Ameri carpelli. Diagnosed by exhaustion and ruined fins. There is a bug-eyed, scale up and dropsy. If you press on the dead fish, yellow mucus will appear. Treatment – osarsol with soda (1: 1000) and furazolidone.
  • When treating fish, it is important to choose the right drug and dosage. Mistakes can lead to the death of fish.

  • Costiosis The causative agent is Costia necatrix flagellate. Sick fish are covered with a gray-blue blotch of parasites, cysts and dead epithelial cells. Treatment – isolation in a separate container, table salt, formalin, copper sulphate, methylene blue and potassium permanganate.
  • Oodiniumosis. Dichromathos Dinoflagellate soda becomes the culprit of the disease. On the fish is visible gray-yellow bloom, resembling fine sand. It rises to the surface of the aquarium, loses weight and tries to remove a raid on stones and plants. Treatment – table salt, silver nitrate, blue vitriol and formalin.
  • Octomitosis. The causative agent is Octomitus flagellates. Negatively affects the appetite, the fish eats poorly and is depleted until death. Treatment – calomel.
  • Plystophorosis. Arises from the sporester Plistophorafifes sobrikonis. Pet is stained white and lose weight. The disease cannot be cured, therefore it is recommended to destroy the fish, and wash the aquarium with disinfectants.
  • Hilodonellosis. The causative agent is considered equilal infusoria Hilodonella cyprinol. Recognize the onset of the disease by the actions of the fish – it tends to the surface. The peak of reproduction of parasites begins at + 10 … + 18 degrees of water. Treatment – copper sulfate, malachite and brilliant green, potassium permanganate and purple K.
  • The dosage of each drug is prescribed by a specialist. An increase in normal or improperly prepared solution will lead to death.

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    Poor quality food and mechanical damage cause ailments of aquarium fish. It is necessary to notice the first signs in time:

    1. Inflammation of the intestine and stomach. Monotonous, poor-quality live and dry food becomes the cause of the disease. You can recognize it by fish lethargy, darkening of the skin and bloating of the belly, as well as by the red anus and mucus excrement, similar to the filament. Treatment – wellness fasting up to 3 days, the introduction of high-quality food with table salt and rivanol.
    2. Obesity. A large number of fish and abundant food lead to overweight. From this they cease to multiply, some die. Signs – big belly, sluggish movements with good appetite. Treatment – to normalize the mode and portion of feeding. Twice a day, give the amount of food that a fish can eat in 10 minutes.
    3. Hypothermia The pet sinks to the bottom, because the swim bladder functions poorly due to the low water temperature. Treatment – a gradual increase in temperature by no more than 3 divisions in one hour.

    The cause of bloating in fish can be monotonous poor-quality food.

  • Poisoning. There is a bad feed, and the smell of paint or smoking near the aquarium. Poisoned fish rises to the surface of the water, convulsively moves, eats poorly, breathes heavily and often, eyes become glassy. Treatment – transplanting fish into a clean container, removing toxic substances from an aquarium, pouring fresh water. Food poisoning requires abstaining from food for two days.
  • Mechanical injury. Improper arrangement of the aquarium or fights between fish leads to damage. Treatment – skin and fins heal without assistance. To prevent infection from getting into the wounds, the fish is placed in a 5% salt solution three times a day.
  • Avitaminosis. Appears from the monotonous, dry, devoid of vitamins feed. Recognized by the color of fish, it becomes faded, and the pet is sluggish. Treatment – live bloodworm, vitamins and plants.
  • In case of any disease, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness of the aquarium and check the feed for freshness. Do not forget to take into account the change of mood of the fish.

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    It is easier to prevent diseases than to treat them in disrepair. If you perform simple content rules, You can protect the fish from diseases:

    • weekly cleaning of the aquarium with the replacement of ¼ volume of water;
    • transplant surplus fish;
    • cleaning traumatic decorations;
    • quality food 1 or 2 times a day;
    • temperature of water, for each species it is its own;
    • proper transportation of pets;
    • use of a temperature regulator in winter time;
    • quarantine for beginners;
    • disinfection of everything that interacted with the sick fish;
    • quality drugs in the correct dosage during treatment.

    Care, timely care and complete food will protect your favorite fish from diseases and injuries. A regular cleaning of the aquarium will help to avoid many troubles.

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