Diseases of aquarium fish occur suddenly, modern laboratory diagnostics has learned to recognize most of the diseases and learn how to treat them. In the home aquarium in the first days of the onset of the disease, the symptoms begin to appear, and the sooner the disease is recognized and treatment begins, the higher the probability of success in suppressing the ailment.
All diseases of aquarium inhabitants can be divided into three types:
- Infectious origin, the disease is transmitted from individual to individual.
- Invasive diseases caused by parasites, including single-celled.
- Non-contagious diseases that arise as a result of improper care or the influence of large parasites of animal origin.
Causes of diseases of aquarium fish of a non-contagious nature have a different origin.
The main causes of the appearance of the disease in fish:
- Chemical poisoning;
- Lack of cleaning and aeration equipment;
- Incorrect temperature inside the pond.
The chemical nature of the appearance of the disease can be attributed to chlorine poisoning. Often fish diseases occur in tanks without aeration equipment installed.
Excessively low and elevated water temperatures adversely affect the health of individuals. If the temperature is too high, oxygen starvation may occur in pets, a low figure on a thermometer can contribute to the appearance of colds. Invasive diseases caused by viruses and bacteria get into the reservoir in various ways.
Danger brings a new pet, food, substrate, plants and decorative items.
Fish disease is primarily manifested by a long stay in one place without movement, lowering to the bottom, hiding under the roots and decorative elements. The signs of aquarium fish disease are numerous, as a rule, they have an external character of manifestation.
Signs of an unhealthy condition of aquarium fish contained in the home:
- Active breathing.
- The appearance of beams on fins and white spots.
- Scale color changes.
- Red thin stripes on transparent fins.
- The change in the degree of adherence of the fins to the body.
- The appearance of a foreign body on the surface of the epidermis.
- The appearance of white dots.
- White round spots of different size.
- The formation of an abscess.
Early diagnosis of the occurrence of the disease in aquarium fish will allow you to make the correct diagnosis as soon as possible, choosing the right treatment and medications.
Diseases of aquarium fish are mainly treated by several methods:
- In the general artificial reservoir where pets live.
- Separate tanks where fish are placed specifically for therapeutic therapy.
- Individual treatment with lotions.
The most common and effective method is the second, in which the sick individual must be transplanted into a vessel with a high content of the therapeutic drug in the liquid. If a contagious disease or any of its symptoms is found in fish, then prophylactic treatment should be carried out for all aquatic inhabitants to prevent mass infection and death.
Therapy of sick individuals in the general vessel is less effective, since the low content of therapeutic components in the water does not completely kill the source of the disease. There are frequent cases when a harmful source of aquarium pet disease is stored in the substrate, water, on the surface of plants and their treatment gives a short-term result.
Non-contagious diseases do not pose a danger to the entire aquarium; however, they require careful treatment in order to save the life of the diseased fish.
During alkalosis, the surface of the body fades and loses its luster; mucus comes out of the gills. The fish is moving frantically and trying to jump out of the reservoir. When neglect occurs, corneal clouding and blindness occur.
Before treating infected fish, they must be moved to another vessel with an acidity index of from 7 to 8.5.
The reason for the argument is a parasitic rounded crustacean, which is visible on the surface of the body of the aquarium fish. The parasite invades the body, destroying the pet’s epidermis and releasing dangerous poison. The fish suffers from severe itching at the point of introduction.
A sick individual must be deposited in an otsadnik, carefully remove the parasite, and treat the bite site with an antiseptic.
When individuals in the water are poorly saturated with oxygen, they suffocate. At the same time the gills are open, active respiratory movements are noticeable. To cure pets, it is enough to move them to an oxygen-rich body of water, then ensure further supply of quality aquarium water.
Asphyxiation in its symptoms is similar to infectious diseases, if after moving the fish to a new vessel their condition has not improved, the infection should be suspected.
Lack of oxygen is a sign of another disease – anoxia, with restless swimming at the surface of the water one can judge about the lack of air inside the aquarium, the disease can also lead to death. For treatment, it is necessary to check the filtration and aeration system, to restore the oxygen balance.
The main symptoms of acidemia are darkening of the color and being at the surface, damage to the gills, attempts to jump out is allowed. For treatment it is important to replace the water, clean the reservoir.
Fish infected with acidosis become pale, inactive and alert, grayish spots appear on the body. Individuals begin to swim belly up and sideways.
For treatment in the aquarium, you need to add baking soda to normalize the level of water acidity.
The cause of inflammation of the digestive tract is a poor and monotonous diet. The main symptom is feces in the form of a thread with mucus and blood, inflammatory processes in the anus.
For treatment, you should stop feeding for several days, then continue to feed better food.
A sick fish has a belly swelling in which a tumor is formed. The appetite disappears, the individual becomes barren and dies.
There is no cure, as it is not diagnosed in the early stages.
Obesity is manifested by bloating, the appearance of adipose tissue on the internal organs, and the blood becomes lighter. If the fish is sick, then it will not work to cure it, it is recommended to prevent obesity in the aquarium.
Poisoned sick fish are characterized by restless behavior and attempts to jump out of the reservoir. Breathing is difficult, and the gills are covered with mucus.
Over time, the behavior becomes indifferent and immobile. All inhabitants should be moved to a new vessel, and low-quality water should be cleaned with a carbon filter.
The disease results from the blockage of blood vessels with excessive amounts of air. At pets gills darken, the behavior becomes restless.
The best treatment is to create an environment with an optimal oxygen content.
With a long-term keeping of individuals in the temperature unacceptable for their species, the fish become inactive, swim on the surface. The color fades, and the fins are pressed. As a result, a decrease in immunity increases the risk of infection with other infections.
The temperature of the water must be raised to the required level.
Injuries appear as a result of fights, aggressive behavior of fish, substandard decor items inside the reservoir. Major injuries must be treated using manganese lotions.
Infectious diseases of aquarium fish are dangerous and life threatening of the entire aquarium. Infectious diseases are easily transmitted from one aquarium fish to another.
In order to make a diagnosis, one should carefully follow the external changes of the individual and its behavior.
When infected with this disease in aquarium fish changes appearance. Color brightens, in some cases, whitens. Swimming takes place on the surface of the vessel.
For treatment using a separate container with chloramphenicol.
White skin in fish
Branchomycosis appears dark stripes on the gills. The behavior of the fish becomes inactive, it swims only near the surface of the water, there is no appetite, the individual hides and is hunched, while the fins are pressed.
The treatment is carried out in the spit using copper sulfate and rivanol.
When infected with this ailment in aquarium fish, the anus is inflamed, erosion of the epidermis appears, which looks like mucous perforated ulcers. The disease is contagious and requires serious long-term drug treatment.
The main external symptoms of the disease are expressed by pressing the fins. The fish swims near the surface, the movement is rocking, the appetite disappears, the individual rubs against the surface of solid objects, the fins are destroyed.
Treatment is allowed in the general vessel with the use of drugs.
The affected individuals begin to swim on their side, growths appear on the skin, which subsequently burst. The disease is accompanied by a bugglaze.
There is no method of treatment, all individuals should be destroyed.
The main symptoms are clouding of the fins, their edges acquiring a white-blue tint. Further, the disease is accompanied by rotting of the clouded parts.
For the treatment of fin rot, bactericidal drugs and baths are used.
The diseased fish moves on the surface of the reservoir, the gills become covered with mucus and become of various colors, often the gill petals grow together. The affected individuals are treated in a common aquarium using bicillin, salt and formalin.
Often occurs as a secondary disease as a result of weak immunity. Skin and gills are affected, sometimes internal organs are affected. The fungus is visible in the form of white threads on the epidermis and gills.
If ringworm is a primary ailment, it is treated with therapeutic baths.
Ichthyosporidiosis acts on all tissues, with the exception of cartilage and bone tissue. Sick pets move abruptly, scratch, do not eat food, they have a bug eye, and fins are destroyed.
The treatment does not apply. All individuals are destroyed.
The main symptoms of semolina are frequent breathing and itching, as a result of which fish itch on hard surfaces, and then white grains similar to semolina appear on the body. For the treatment of used bactericidal drugs, water changes, raising the temperature.
When lepidortosis, the scales are raised, since bubbles with liquid inside are formed under it. As the disease progresses, the scales fall out and the fish die. Accurately diagnose the disease is possible only in laboratory conditions.
The treatment is effective only at the beginning, when small areas of the body surface are raised.
When trichodynosis fish rub against the substrate and pebbles, the skin is covered with a touch of light color. Gills change color and become covered with mucus.
For treatment, an infected individual is transferred to a settler with a fluid temperature not lower than 31 degrees with the addition of salt in the calculation of 40 grams per 20 liters.
Accompanying symptoms of an ulcer are dark spots on the body, turning into ulcers. But also puff eyed, bloated belly and lack of appetite.
Treatment is necessary immediately, for which streptotsid or potassium permanganate is used.
When peyouglazii eyes swell up strongly, there are cases of eye loss. The disease occurs in conjunction with other infectious infections, for example, with dropsy.
From this depends directly on the method of treatment.
Dropsy is manifested by a strong abdominal swelling, the scales at the same time begins to puff up. The disease is accompanied by shortness of breath and a flaccid state.
The furunculosis is manifested by small dark spots, which eventually become ulcers of a red hue. Their shape and size are different.
The main sign of infection is an abrupt upside down movement. There is no appetite and movement coordination is impaired.
The disease is incurable, therefore, requires the destruction of infected individuals.
Disease of viviparous individuals. Ulcers, boils appear, blindness can occur and the skin becomes covered with black dots.
Treatment is effective only at an early stage.
Diseases of aquarium fish can be prevented by following general preventive measures:
- Acquire new inhabitants, plants, substrate and decor elements should be in proven sales points.
- New plants are recommended to handle.
- New pets must be kept in quarantine for up to 4 weeks and only then transplanted to the fish in the general aquarium.
- It is forbidden to acquire fish with injuries and foreign bodies on the skin.
- Proper compliance with all parameters of the internal environment of an artificial reservoir.
- Closely monitor the behavior of the inhabitants and record the changes.
- Regularly replace up to 30% of the water in the vessel, but not more than 1 time in 7 days.
- Soil must be siphoned to remove rotten elements, plants and waste products of fish.
- Eliminate overpopulation in the aquarium.
- Inhabitants should be given only high-quality food, it is recommended to store food according to the instructions.
- Provide a diet in accordance with the needs of each species living in the home tank.
- Do not allow a sharp change in temperature inside the vessel.
- Reduce the acidity of water with a solution of salt.
- If aquarium accessories such as a net, hose, siphon were used in a quarantine vessel, they should not be used in the general aquarium.
Prevention is important and necessary to prevent diseases that often arise due to improper maintenance and care of the aquarium or infection from the outside.