Good day! We continue to get acquainted with diseases of aquarium fish, and today on the agenda we have karyophillosis.
This parasitic disease affects both aquarium and free-living fish from natural waters. The causative agents are tapeworms Caryophyllaeus.
Unlike other members of the Cestoda class, tapeworms that cause karyophillosis have a length of only 15 to 40 millimeters. If you compare it with a bull chain, then it is a crumb, as the tapeworm can reach a length of up to 10 meters.
The common Russian name of karyophillosis pathogens is carnation. What caused such a name and comparison of the parasite and the plant?
It turns out that the head of the worm fan-shapedly expands at the end and has a scalloped edge that resembles a carnation flower. A slightly flattened body, 1.5 millimeters wide, departs from the fan-shaped head.
Adult worms settle in the intestines of fish, where then fertilized eggs are laid. Together with the waste products, these eggs fall into the aquarium environment, where they safely settle to the bottom of the reservoir and mature in the ground for a month until the embryo hatch.
In the same place in the ground these eggs will feed the pipelayer.
After entering the tubule, the larva of the tapeworm is released from the unnecessary shell and safely settles in the body of the intermediate host. As they grow, the larva of the carnation in 3-4 months will have a length of 1.5 – 2 millimeters.
In the course of their vital activity in the body of the pipe worker, the parasite provokes castration: under the influence of the larvae of the carnation of the pipe worker, the genital organs degenerate, which then disappear altogether.
Infection of fish occurs through the pipe worker, in which the parasite lives. After entering the fish intestines, the parasites begin to grow rapidly and in a couple of months they turn into adult worms, ready for reproduction. After this, the life cycle of the parasite is repeated again.
The first sign of disease in aquarium fish can be called a strong depletion with good and high-quality food. It is very often possible to notice an enlarged front part of the belly, where a large number of studs have accumulated, which can live in the body of a fish for up to a year.
If females do not always notice this symptom in time, as an aquarist may confuse an enlarged abdomen with caviar, then this symptom is pronounced in males.
A huge accumulation of parasites in the intestines of fish can trigger a rupture of the intestinal walls and even the abdominal wall. In the end, some of the parasites will free themselves outside and it seems that behind a fish a bunch of white ribbons is waving.
Almost every fish of any age can get cariofillosis, but the fish of the family of the pitsiliys (swordtails, mollies, placilia, guppy), as well as some types of goldfish and barbs are most susceptible.
A full diagnosis can only be made after a tapeworm with a stud head end is found in the intestines of a fish. You must understand that the disease develops only in those aquarium fish that eat the tubule. But do not think that all the fish that ate the pipe maker will surely get sick with karyophillosis.
Infection of fish occurs only if a parasite larva was in the tube at the time of feeding.
The treatment of fish is carried out with the addition of kamala, fenasal or divermic drugs to concentrated feed. The granulated feed cyprinocystin, which contains 1% fenasal, also proved to be a good idea. The most effective preventive measure against karyophillosis is to avoid using a tubule for feeding aquarium fish.
Use this feed only in cases when it is mined in known and proven water bodies. It is possible to use a pipe maker for feeding aquarium fish only in those cases if there are no fish from the carp family in the pond in which it was harvested.