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Tetrad, triad, pentada Fallo in children: description, ultrasound signs in pregnancy, diagnosis in newborns, prognosis after surgery

Congenital heart anomaly – triad, tetrad, pentada Fallot

The heart of a person during his development during pregnancy must go through a series of complex stages. If this process is violated, the child develops congenital heart defects, which include the triad, tetrad and pentad of Fallot.

The human heart is four cavities (two atria and two ventricles). Arterial blood flows in the left parts of the heart and enters the body through the aorta, venous through the right divisions gets into the lungs through the pulmonary artery. The return flow of blood is impeded by the heart valves. When the anatomical structure is broken (congenital or acquired heart disease), the entire circulatory system inevitably suffers.

The incidence of congenital heart disease is 6-8 cases per thousand of newborns.

Causes and classification of CHD (congenital heart disease)

  • manifestation of an inherited disease (Down syndrome);
  • actions of harmful factors on the fetus during pregnancy;
  • manifestation of non-hereditary disease.

All congenital heart defects of any complexity form four groups:

  • with enrichment of a large circle of blood circulation;
  • with impoverishment of a large circle of blood circulation;
  • with enrichment of the small circle of blood circulation;
  • with depletion of the small circle of circulation.

The fourth type includes three complex similar heart defects: tetrad, triad and pentad of Fallot. All three species cause characteristic cyanosis of the skin, for which they are called blue vices.


Tetrad (triad, pentada) Fallot is a congenital heart disease, leading to significant disorders in the circulatory system. The disease needs a timely diagnosis and a two-stage surgical correction. If these conditions are met, the child is guaranteed a normal life expectancy and satisfactory quality.

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