Pituitary Nanism in Children
Dwarfism refers to a disease in which the growth of a child is slowed or occurs with a delay and is expressed in a significantly smaller growth than in a normal adult. The word pituitary refers to the activity of the gland (pituitary gland), which regulates the production in the body of certain chemicals called hormones. Therefore, hypophyseal nanism in children is characterized, first of all, by small growth due to hormonal problems. Ultimately, this is expressed in proportion to small growth, since the growth of all other organs and systems of the organism slows or ceases.
Pituitary dwarfism is caused by problems in the pituitary gland. The pituitary body, also called the pituitary gland, is located at the base of the brain and produces various hormones. This gland is divided into the anterior and posterior lobes. The anterior pituitary gland produces six kinds of hormones: growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin (corticotropin), thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin), prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces only two hormones: an antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin.
The growth process begins at the bottom of the frontal lobe of the brain in a small organ called the hypothalamus. Hypothalamus releases hormones that regulate the production of other hormones. When the hypothalamus releases a somato-releasing hormone (SRH), the growth hormone (GH) is stimulated in the anterior pituitary gland. Growth hormone then acts on the liver and other tissues and stimulates the release of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which directly contributes to the strengthening of the musculoskeletal system, causing bone length increases and protein synthesis in the muscles.
The success of treatment with growth hormone depends on many factors. An increase in height of 10-15 cm can occur during the first year of treatment. After the first year, the response to hormone replacement therapy is less pronounced. However, even after the first year the child, as a rule, continues to grow at a faster rate than without growth hormone therapy. Long-term treatment is considered successful if the child adds at least 2 cm a year more to growth than if he did not receive hormones. However, if growth hormone therapy is not started before the bone plates of long bones (for example, limbs, the child will not grow). The prognosis is better the earlier the substitution therapy with growth hormone has been started.
Statistics to improve the condition of patients with dwarfism for other reasons, for example, because of the tumor, varies greatly. The prognosis, as a rule, depends on the successful resolution of the underlying problem, that is, the presence of chronic pathology and the age of the child.
Prevention of pituitary dwarfism and fear of parents
Methods of preventing pituitary dwarfism is unknown, although in some cases it may be caused by a pituitary trauma. To reduce the risk of pituitary insufficiency due to injury can observe precaution in everyday life.
Children with pituitary dwarfism are less than other children, but they are also intellectually developed and can live a long and healthy life. It is important that parents do not put the low expectations of their child with pituitary dwarfism just because their child looks younger than they really are. Communication with him should correspond to the actual age of the child. Children with pituitary dwarfism may encounter rash commentaries of others about them, and their self-identification strongly depends on parents' response to such comments.