Nephropathy in children as a result of metabolic disorders
Dismetabolic nephropathies (DN) – under this name unite a group of diseases that have different etiology and pathogenesis and for which the damage of interstitial tissue and renal tubules is characteristic as a result of metabolic changes.
For DN of any etiology, the excessive content of various substances in urine is characteristic and the resulting appearance of a urinary syndrome with the appearance of crystals. In the mechanism of crystal formation, the following factors are important: saturation of tubular fluid above the limit determining its stability; activation of precipitation and a reduction in the activity of substances that reduce supersaturation. The process of crystal formation occurs when anion and cation are present in the urine. As a result of the impending saturation of urine ions of different species, their precipitation into crystals and further growth occurs. An important role in this process belongs to the dehydration of urine, which leads to an increase in the concentration of ions in it, despite their normal formation.
In addition to saturation, the mechanism of crystal formation is influenced by the strength of ions, their ability to form complexes and the flow rate of urine. Essential is the ongoing inflammatory process of the urinary tract, which accelerates the precipitation of salts. The constant presence of crystals in the urine causes their deposition in the tissues of the kidneys, the development of inflammation of interstitium and glomeruli, which leads to stone formation and the formation of urolithiasis.