Diphtheria in children
Diphtheria in children Is an acute infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract and nasopharynx, and also, in rare cases, of the skin in places of injury. This disease can lead to death. The main manifestation is the appearance of grayish fibrinous films on the surface of the tonsils and the mucous membranes of the oropharynx.
Diphtheria in children, as well as for many infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract, is characterized mainly by winter seasonality.
The main route of transmission of the pathogen is airborne. In rare cases, the infection is transmitted by contact and household. The incubation period varies from 2 to 7 days (an average of 3 days). Persons who are not immunized against infection can get sick at any age.
The main causes of diphtheria in children are the lack of vaccination by age and infection. The causative agent of the disease is Corynebacterium diphtheria. By producing diphtheria toxin, it causes disease. The entrance gate of the infection is most often the mucous membrane of the oral cavity, nose, larynx. Corynebacteria spread to tissue cells and begin to produce exotoxin, a substance that causes the death of body cells. Exotoxin has both a local and a general action when spreading along the vascular bed. When a diphtheria bacillus enters the pharyngeal tonsils from the affected cells, a specific liquid is released, and when thickened, a dense fibrinous film of grayish color is formed.