Rubella in children
Rubella in children manifests itself in the form of a viral infection, the consequences of which can become persistent changes in the hematological type. There are congenital and acquired rubella. Both types equally adversely affect the subsequent development of the child. Transmission routes are usually airborne and contact. In the human body, the virus quickly mutates and becomes adaptogenic, i.e. adapts to new conditions of existence. This causes a high incidence of long-term carriage of the rubella virus.
The rubella virus is a representative of the Togoviridae family. Its Rubivirus stamp refers to easily transmissible microorganisms. The basis of the rubella virus is ribonucleic acid. In its form, the rubella virus resembles a spherical formation. Its size rarely exceeds 65-70 nm.
It is not stable in the external environment and the destruction of the microorganism is rapidly achieved under the influence of ultraviolet rays. This causes the almost complete absence of even episodic cases of rubella incidence in children in the summer. At the boiling point, the rubella virus completely dies within five minutes. In conditions of room temperature, the rubella pathogen can retain its viable forms for 10 hours. A characteristic feature of this type of virus is the excellent resistance to low temperatures. Survival of the virus with deep freezing is about 90%. The microorganism is absolutely not resistant to the effects of chlorine, formaldehyde and acid media.
A newborn child who has a rubella virus lesion is usually calmer. He is observed retardation of nervous reactions, drowsiness, a sharp decrease in the tone of muscle fibers, frequent convulsions. In the future, such children are significantly behind in their mental development from their peers.
Immediately after the birth of the baby, a hemorrhagic rash appears on its skin, which can last up to 2 weeks. This is accompanied by intoxication and enlargement of the liver and spleen. In parallel, prolonged jaundice can occur, which lasts longer than physiological jaundice of newborns. Radiologic examination reveals the areas of osteoporosis, the discharge of bone tissue of bones tubular type. These are all large bones of the child's limbs. They can disappear without a trace in the first 2 months of the baby's life. Completely clinical manifestations of congenital rubella in newborns disappear by 6 months of life.
In the future, the transferred intrauterine infection will remind oneself of the child's retardation in mental and physical development. These children have a smaller body weight and are smaller than their peers. Until now, the mortality rate of such babies remains high enough. Almost 20 percent of them do not live up to their 4th birthday.
But even if in the first days and months after birth in children whose mothers had rubella during pregnancy, no manifestations were found, changes appear later. It has been experimentally established that during the lifetime of these babies their mental abilities are significantly impaired. They do not have the opportunity to study in secondary school. They need corrective education for mentally retarded children.