Changes in the clinical analysis of red peripheral blood in children under different conditions
To achieve success in the treatment of a patient, the underlying diagnosis is a correctly established diagnosis. Knowing the main symptoms of the disease, the peculiarities of its course allows the doctor to build a primary diagnostic construct, which can be confirmed or refuted by the results of paraclinical research methods conducted at the next stage of the diagnostic process.
At present, a significant number of modern methods of research – radionuclide, thermal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, have been introduced into clinical medicine, but the study of peripheral blood indices still does not lose its diagnostic value.
A clinical blood test is a basic study that is performed in almost all cases of the patient’s referral to the doctor, so the ability to properly interpret the results of a general blood test should be available to doctors of all specialties.
The blood reacts by changing its composition, both cellular and biochemical, to any processes in the body of the physiological (physical activity, eating, pregnancy) and pathological nature (illness, exposure to physical, chemical factors). Results of a general blood test in children demonstrate the lability of the response of the hematopoietic system of the child’s body.
Depending on the magnitude of the incidence of hemoglobin, the severity of the condition is assessed:
- light - concentration of Hb 109-90 g / l;
- average concentration of 89-70 g / l;
- heavy - Hb below 70 g / l.
Depending on the functional state of erythropoiesis, which can be estimated from the number of reticulocytes (erythrocyte precursor cells) in the peripheral blood, anemia is distinguished:
- regenerative - the number of reticulocytes is 1,0-5% (15-50 ‰ from the number of all erythrocytes);
- hyperregenerative - the number of reticulocytes is more than 5% (more than 50 ‰ from the number of all red blood cells);
- hyporegenerative - less than 0.2% (less than 5 ‰ of the number of all red blood cells);
- aregenerative (aplastic) - reticulocytes are not determined.
By the degree of saturation of red blood cells, hemoglobin is distinguished:
- hypochromic anemia (CP <0.85),
- Normochromic (CP 0.85-1.0),
- hyperchromic (CPU gt; 1.0).
Together with clinical data, hemogram features allow a physician to identify the pathogenetic cause of anemia.
Most often in the practice of a pediatrician's doctor there are iron deficiency anemia. Morphological features of this type of anemia demonstrate results of a general blood test:
- the drop in hemoglobin is lower than 110 g / l;
- hypochromia - the value of the CP is less than 0.85;
- reticulocytosis up to 20%;
- anisocytosis in a general blood test, microcytosis, poikilocytosis (changes in the size and shape of erythrocytes);
- an increase in ESR.
Erythropoietin - a hormone produced primarily in the kidneys, is a physiological stimulator of erythropoiesis. As a result of local renal ischemia with stenosing lesions of the renal arteries, kidney cysts, hydronephrosis, the production of erythropoietin increases, which leads to an increase in the number of erythrocytes. In addition, tumor formation of the kidneys, adrenals, hemangioblastoma of the cerebellum, neuroblastoma can produce erythropoietin.
Hello. My name is Polina. Hearing once the truth that a pediatrician is the chief doctor for any family with young children, I realized that I have something to strive for.