Celiac disease: causes, manifestations, treatment
Celiac disease is a chronic disease that has many manifestations due to damage to the small intestine mucosa by protein, which is contained in cereals – gluten (gluten enteropathy, flour disease).
Gluten contains the following cereals: oats, rye, wheat, barley. This is the so-called gluten-protein cereals. The median prevalence of celiac disease is 1 per 1000 newborns. Boys and girls get sick with the same frequency.
This is a hereditary disease that is transmitted by an autosomal dominant type. With this type of inheritance, the disease appears in the event that there is even one pathologically altered gene that can be inherited from any parent. The main mutated gene is in the 6 chromosome.
The mechanism of development is not fully understood, a possible cause is considered a defect of enzymes that form in the small intestine, which are not capable of processing gluten. A considerable role is assigned to adenovirus, which is found in 90 percent of children suffering from celiac disease. In addition, the effect of hypersensitivity of the mucous membrane to gluten, acquired hereditarily, is not ruled out. The most proven is the immunological theory, in which antibodies to the gluten fraction of the protein are formed in the body, which triggers a cascade of pathological reactions occurring in the body: the death of enterocytes (cells of the small intestine), which disrupts such normal functions of the intestine as the absorption and progress of food.