Catarrhal gingivitis is an inflammation of the gum tissue caused by bacteria. Ultimately, the bacterium can penetrate into the bone tissue that holds the tooth roots and cause it to rot. This is the last stage of the disease, known as periodontal disease. Periodontitis is the main cause of tooth loss in the vast majority of the population, and the number one cause in the elderly.
Bacteria that cause gingivitis are hidden in the cervical gum, on the border of the tooth and gums. These bacteria, which include several varieties, are known under the common name – dental plaque. Plaque consists of bacteria, mucus and small particles of food. Dental plaque is constantly populated with new bacteria and, if you do not brush your teeth for two days, then the plaque will harden and turn into tartar. The tooth stone can not be removed with a toothbrush or a thread, only an appeal to the dentist will help.
Some people are more prone to gingivitis than others. Gingivitis occurs especially often in people with diabetes, leukemia or AIDS. Other causes of catarrhal gingivitis include:
- pubertal period;
- bad fillings or loose crowns;
- breathing through the mouth;
- genetic predisposition;
- allergic reactions;
- lack of vitamin C (scurvy);
- lack of niacin (vitamin B3) (pellagra);
- medicines (eg, taking birth control pills);
- incorrectly placed teeth or poorly installed dental appliances (such as retainers or crowns).
Also, for the removal of dental plaque causing catarrhal gingivitis, it is much more effective to use electric, rather than conventional, toothbrushes. Studies have shown that compliance with oral hygiene can prevent the development of gingivitis in children and adults.
Cleaning your teeth with dental floss is not particularly effective for children, although, in any case, it is a useful habit. However, people with diseases that contribute to the development of gingivitis (for example, diabetes) should not rely solely on oral hygiene as a preventive measure. To prevent gingivitis, it is very important to treat the disease itself.
After the plaque has become a tartar, only a visit to the dentist can help in its removal. Dentists recommend removing the tartar once a year or six months. Removal of plaque and stone is also considered one of the methods of treatment of the initial stage of catarrhal gingivitis. After you have removed the plaque and tartar, the inflammation of the gums quickly recedes.
If the disease passes into the periodontitis period, then deep cleansing or periodontal surgery may be required. These procedures include opening the gum tissue, in order to get to the infected site. The infected tissue is removed, and tartar is removed from the root of the affected tooth. Sometimes, a deep periodontal cleansing can be done without cutting the gums. In particularly severe cases, graft tissue transplantation may be required.