Birth trauma of the brain
Birth trauma (RT) is a violation of the integrity of the tissues or organs of the fetus during labor, developing as a result of local action on the fetus of mechanical forces. The incidence of trauma in childbirth is 14-33 cases per 1000 live births, including a severe birth injury of 2-7 cases per 1000 live births. The frequency of detection of intracranial RT varies from 0.1 to 65-75%, depending on the age of the fetus, the qualifications of obstetricians and their tactics, and the diagnostic capabilities of the clinic. The death of newborns occurs in 2-3% of the total number of cases of severe birth trauma of the brain.
Among the factors contributing to birth trauma, the most significant is the incorrect relationship between the size of the pelvis of the mother and the fetus. From the mother’s side is the narrowed pelvis, stiffness of the soft tissues of the birth canal, the first birth, rapid delivery, weakness of labor, multiple pregnancy, low water. On the part of the fetus is a large head, abnormal presentation, malformations, prematurity, hypersomnia, hypoxia. Trauma can occur with obstetric manipulation (application of obstetric forceps, vacuum extractor, monitoring of fetal condition, cutting with a scalpel). The development of birth traumatism is facilitated by disruption of the formation of the elastic and collagen fibers of the fetus due to the pathological course of pregnancy, intrauterine infection, as well as venous congestion, swelling and loosening of the fetal tissues due to intrauterine hypoxia.