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Birth trauma in children (including newborns): damage to the cervical vertebra, fractures, dislocations and others, diagnosis, consequences

Birth trauma in a newborn child

Damages that occur in the process of the birth act are recorded from 5 to 10% of cases, which are accompanied not only by impairments on the part of the child, but also by traumatism in the mother (vagina, uterus ruptures, fistula formation between the reproductive system and intestines). To date, they appear much less frequently than a few decades ago, but nevertheless can lead to serious complications, because injuries in newborns – a dangerous phenomenon.

Birth trauma is defined as damage to the baby of different localization and severity, which arise due to incorrect tactics of management or pathology of labor. Disturbances can be triggered by mechanical factors (when squeezing or pulling the fetus) or hypoxic (with insufficient transport of oxygen into the body of a future child) by factors.

Damage during the birth act may be of different nature, but it is this period of life that plays an important role in the further physical and mental development of the child. Distinguish:

  • skin – abrasions on the scalp and other parts of the body when using tools during childbirth;
  • subcutaneous fat;
  • muscles;
  • cephalohematoma – hemorrhage in the apodematous (a thin layer of connective tissue that covers the bone from the outside);
  • compression of the head – the bones of the child’s skull have properties for displacement, but during natural delivery under high vaginal pressure, deformation may occur.

  • Bleeding during childbirth can occur in different structures of the central nervous system and be of the following types:

    • epidural - the accumulation of blood between the skull and the dura mater;
    • subdural - hematoma under the dura mater;
    • intraventricular - hemorrhage into the internal formations of the brain - the ventricles;
    • Subarachnoidal - between the subarachnoid and mild membranes;
    • Parenchymal - hemorrhage into the soft tissues of the brain.

    Abnormal course of labor leads to hemorrhage in:

    The immediate cause of injury is the use of physical stimulation during labor, for example:

    • use of obstetric forceps or vacuum extractor;
    • turning the fruit by the foot;
    • incorrect cesarean section.

    It aggravates fetal damage and oxygen deficiency (hypoxia), which in some cases leads to hemorrhage even without injury to blood vessels.

    The provoking factors of this pathology are:

    The mismatch between the fetus and the pelvis of the mother

    • a large fruit;
    • narrow pelvis;
    • anomalies of the development of the pelvis in the mother;
    • Hypoplasia of the uterus (underdevelopment).

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