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Astigmatism in children: what is it, the symptoms and causes

Disease of the visual system astigmatism; than it is dangerous and as it is shown at children

Astigmatism is a clinical diagnosis, the main symptom of which is the distortion of the clarity of vision due to pathological irregularities in the shape of the eye, the cornea or the lens.

This defect is most often observed in children from 0 to 18 years, which in most cases speaks in favor of the hereditary nature of the disease, but other causes are not excluded.

It is important to immediately recognize the ailment and begin to conduct therapeutic activities. In childhood, it is much easier to correct visual pathologies, since the child only forms immunity, and the body is most stable and plastic to changes.

Astigmatism is a pathological violation of visual acuity, which expresses itself in the wrong, fuzzy perception of images and objects.

The person thus sees the elements of the surrounding reality blurred, distorted, which in turn exerts additional stress on the think tank.

Deeper into the medical aspect, we can say that as a result of deformation of the cornea, the lens, the image is focused on the retina of the eye incorrectly.

Ideally, the light rays are connected in the very center of the retina (macula), which generates clarity and clarity of perception.

In the case of this diagnosis, defocusing occurs, and the picture reproduced by the eye is connected to the eye shell at several points.

Astigmatism in adults and children is more often than not considered by ophthalmologists as a separate disease, but according to ICD-10 it is assigned code H52.2.

The pathology of each child develops differently, so physicians distinguish several of its forms:

  • complex (hypermetropic and myopic type);

    Visual perception is realized with the help of two meridians (horizontal and vertical), if one eye is represented as a semicircular sphere of 180 degrees. In one of them, the greatest force of refraction, and in the other the smallest.

    Simple astigmatism means the presence of hypermetropia and / or myopia (farsightedness / myopia) only in one eye meridian, and in another pathology is absent.

    Complex type – the predominance of only myopia or hypermetropia in each meridian.

    Mixed form implies a different combination of hypermetropia and myopia in each meridian.

    In the medical community, the disease is classified according to other signs. According to the location of the meridians, the following astigmatism is distinguished:

    The straight form implies strengthening the refractive force in the vertical meridian, but the reverse one; on the contrary. Most often in children with astigmatism, there is a direct violation of the refraction of vision.

    To correct the pathology, it is necessary to correctly recognize its variety, as well as determine the amount of distortion of vision. In the latter case, the following degrees of severity of the disease are distinguished:

  • from 3 to 6 diopters (average);

  • more than 6 diopters (high).

    Astigmatism is often combined with myopia (nearsightedness) and hypermetropia (hyperopia). In young children, in most cases, the last form is observed.

    A farsighted type of disease is the presence in one or all of the meridians of the eye of foci of hypermetropia. Symptomatically, this type of pathology differs little from myopic refraction.

    If the nearest relatives (mother, father, grandmother, grandfather, aunt, uncle) have a history of this vision defect, then there is a great chance that after a while he will appear with a small relative. Correction of the disease is carried out with the help of special cylindrical glasses, contact lenses and surgical operation.

    The main cause of astigmatism in children of any age is heredity, but the development of the disease as a result of eye and head injuries, burns, surgical interventions, other diseases, abnormalities and anomalies of the dentofacial system is possible.

    Most often, a person already has a congenital deformation of the shape of the cornea or lens. Symptomatics in this case can manifest itself both in the early and in the older age under the influence of various factors. It is not known exactly when exactly the disease manifests itself.

    Anyone is originally born with a nonideal form of the cornea, but astigmatism up to 0.5 diopter does not need treatment, since it does not cause serious symptoms.

    Newborn baby up to 24 weeks sees the world around it is unclear and blurry, and then the vision is sharply restored. This is the physiological norm.

    If the adaptation of the baby’s eyes has not been fully correct, then vision correction is required.

    Symptoms and signs of a disease in a child 2, 3, 4 years old and older

    Symptomatic pathology is bright and clear. Both the child and an adult usually have the following clinical signs:

  • blurred and blurred images;

  • impaired vision (nearsightedness, farsightedness);

  • fast eye fatigue;

  • sensation of sand in the conjunctival sac.

  • Even full compliance with all preventive measures does not guarantee that in the future, astigmatism will not manifest itself.

    In conclusion, it should be said that child astigmatism - a pathology that occurs in clinical practice quite often.

    The child begins to see objects and things indistinctly, blurry, and the eyes quickly get tired of a minor load.

    In practice, this implies that treatment should be started immediately, as timely correction of vision is the key to further recovery.

    If correction of the ophthalmologic defect is started in early childhood, by 12-13 years you can completely get rid of the symptoms of the disease.

    More information about the disease in this video:

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