Allergic rhinitis in pediatrics
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a disease of the nasal mucosa of an inflammatory nature, mediated by the immunological status of the body. Of the allergens that can cause this disease, we distinguish the epidermis of animals, pollen of plants, house dust mites, fungal spores.
Allergic rhinitis in children widespread enough and everywhere. Recently, this disease is becoming a pandemic.
The incidence of allergic rhinitis is much higher in advanced economies. The prevalence of the disease in such cases is up to 40% among the children. The incidence of AR in Russia ranges from 18 to 39%.
Detection of AP is mostly late, despite such prevalence. It’s connected with:
- underestimation of symptoms of the disease by parents;
- there is no alertness of pediatricians about AR.
The risk factors for AR are other diseases of atopic nature, as well as burdened family allergic anamnesis. This relationship is easy to explain, since the basis of all these pathological conditions of the body is a reactive type of sensitivity with the formation of immunoglobulins E (IgE). This allergic reaction goes through several stages in the life of the child, which is called an allergic march and includes a consistent change of atopic dermatitis with allergic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis with bronchial asthma (BA).
In addition to the above listed measures, the appointment of medication is almost always required. Their use depends on the variant of AP, its duration and the nature of the current.
To date, a short course of nasal decongestants and H1-receptor blockers are used in light intermittent AR flow. The greatest preference is given to drugs of 2 or 3 generations, and this is cetirizine, levocetirizine, desloratadine, since they are transported better than others. As a basic therapy in this version of AP also used cromoglykates - nedocromil and cromoglycate sodium.
If the course of the disease is of moderate severity, use antileukotrienovye funds (montelukast) or systemic blockers of histamine receptors of 2-3 generations. In the absence of the effect of prescribing topochastic steroids - budesonide, beclomethasone.
In severe AP, drugs of allergen-specific immunotherapy are used. With their help, a long-term remission can be achieved after a 3-4-year course.
For proper prevention, parents should remember some points:
- Eating a pregnant and nursing mother should be rational and hypoallergenic;
- Compulsory breastfeeding in the first year of child development;
- Avoid contact with tobacco smoke;
- Prevention of the effects of household dust mites on a child;
- Exclusion of the effects of animal allergens.