Acute leukemia in children: symptoms and treatment
Acute leukemias are malignant tumors that arise from hematopoietic cells. The incidence is 3-4 patients per 100 000 children.
Acute leukemia in children – polyethological disease. Causative factors can be chemicals (endogenous – for example, tryptophan and tyrosine metabolites, and exogenous – for example, benzene), physical factors (ionizing radiation), viruses, genetic factors. Acute leukemia of blood in children often occurs under the influence of immune medications, which are used without control by the doctor.
Classification. Classification of acute leukemia is based on the principle of functional histogenesis, which suggests that in malignantly transformed cells, the basic phenotypic features that are inherent in the original normal cells are retained.
Acute leukemia symptoms often begin to manifest already at a fairly advanced stage of the disease. This complicates the further course of the disease, and the use of adequate therapy and requires great effort to achieve a positive result. Parents should remember that in most cases acute leukemia in children can give symptoms at the earliest stage. But they often go unnoticed. Clinical manifestations are due to the extent of bone marrow infiltration with blasts and extramedullary proliferation of the process.
The earliest symptom of acute leukemia in children is pain in the bones and joints. In typical cases of pronounced anemic syndrome (pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, tachycardia, dyspnea, systolic murmur over the apex of the heart), hemorrhagic syndrome: polymorphic hemorrhagic syndrome leads to large hemorrhages, bleeding from the mucous membranes; proliferative (enlargement of peripheral groups of lymph nodes, liver, spleen, ostalgia and arthralgia, tumor formations under the skin, in the bones of the skull, face, ribs), sometimes simultaneous increase of parotid glands – Mikulich syndrome, lesions of the nervous system and its membranes, etc.) and intoxication syndromes (fatigue, weakness, lethargy, fever, headache).