Acute bronchitis in children
Acute bronchitis in children – an inflammatory disease of the bronchi of various etiologies (infectious, allergic, physico-chemical – irritative bronchitis, aspiration). According to the international classification of diseases, the following forms of acute bronchitis are distinguished: acute simple bronchitis, acute obstructive bronchitis, acute bronchiolitis, recurrent bronchitis. These forms are diagnosed in the presence of clinical symptoms of inflammation of the bronchi without signs of pneumonia. Such symptoms are observed in 20% of patients with acute respiratory viral infection.
Most often, acute bronchitis in children is a manifestation of respiratory viral infection. Changes in the mucous membrane of the bronchi are observed with many viral infections, but the clinical picture of bronchitis occurs only with some. In young children, it is more respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza (1.3 types) infections. In older children, bronchitis can cause many other respiratory viruses (influenza, adenovirus), as well as mycoplasma and chlamydia. Acute bronchitis in children is accompanied by measles and whooping cough. In the case of bronchitis against the background of acute respiratory viral infection, the number of non-capsular hemophilic rods and pneumococci grows in sputum. This, however, does not allow talking about their participation in the development of the disease, it is rather an invasive reproduction of the opportunistic flora, does not cause common microbial inflammation, a specific immune response, and the use of systemic antibiotics does not affect the course of such bronchitis.
Bacterial bronchitis (staphylococcal, pneumococcal, etc.). Most often develop in children with impaired bronchial cleansing mechanisms: in the presence of a foreign body, with intubation of the trachea, in children with a tracheostomy, with the usual aspiration of food, cystic fibrosis is similar. In recent years, the probability of acute bronchitis in children under the influence of xenobiotics, other harmful factors of exposure (passive smoking) has been revealed.