Acne rash in adolescents; acne
Acne rash in adolescents – Acne causes skin disease, leading to the appearance of acne or acne. The most common form of acne is acne vulgaris (vulgar acne) is a rash that affects the skin of many adolescents. The appearance of acne is caused by hormonal changes that occur during puberty.
Acne in teenagers most often occurs on the face, chest, and back. In adolescents, acne usually appears on the forehead, nose and chin. This is caused by increased production of sebum – an oily substance that forms in the sebaceous glands located under the surface of the skin. The glands are associated with the hair follicles, through which sebum flows onto the skin and acts as a natural moisturizer.
If the hair follicles are blocked by keratinizing epithelium, bacteria, then there are pimples. Most of the sebaceous glands are located on the face, neck, back.
Very often the symptoms of acne appear during puberty (pubertal period), when there is an increase in the level of the male sex hormone – androgen. Its high level leads to hyperproduction of sebum. Sometimes sebum combines with dead, sticky epidermal cells and bacteria that normally live on the skin. Their mixture allows bacteria to grow in clogged follicles. When this happens, a solid cork is formed, which is called a comedo.
Types of pimples and blackheads are strictly classified by their appearance. Depending on the type of eel, a suitable treatment can be prescribed. Comedone (eel) – enlarged hair follicle, takes the following forms:
Antiandrogens, drugs that block the synthesis of androgen, are used to treat women in whom other methods of therapy have not yielded positive results. Certain types of oral contraceptives and female sex hormones (estrogens) reduce hormonal activity in the ovaries. Other drugs (spironolactone and corticosteroids) reduce hormonal activity in the adrenal glands. Treatment can take up to 4 months.
Oral corticosteroids or anti-inflammatory drugs are the preferred treatment for a very serious, but rather rare, type of destructive acne called fulminant acne. This form is found mainly in young men. Conglobular acne is characterized by a very severe inflammatory process and includes numerous, deep, inflammatory nodules that, after healing, leave prominent scars. Their treatment includes isotretino and corticosteroids.
Some surgical and medical manipulations designed to facilitate the flow of acne and the treatment of scarring:
- extraction of a gum: the eel is removed from the pore by a special tool;
- chemical peeling: glycolic acid is used to clean the upper layers of the skin to reduce scarring;
- Dermabrasion: removal of epidermis and papillary dermis by scraping;
- transplantation: deep scars are excised, the area is restored by small skin grafts;
- the introduction of corticosteroids directly into inflamed pimples;
- Collagen injections: small scars are eliminated by the introduction of collagen.