In young children, the nervous system that is responsible for the coordination of movements is still underdeveloped, so they often fall. In this immaturity of the body lies its protective potential: in most cases, babies tolerate falls without serious consequences, their ligaments are more elastic than in adults, bones are more flexible, and low growth and weight, which determine the force of impact when falling, soften it.
Nevertheless, children are not insured against serious, “adult” injuries: bruises, sprains, sprains and fractures of the limbs.
Bruises, sprains, strains and fractures of the arms and legs are the most common injuries that children receive during winter walks.
USE: First of all damage to soft tissue from impact or fall.
Symptoms: the injury site was swollen and sore, a bruise or bump appeared. A kid can easily move a bruised arm or leg – which means that neither the bones, nor the joints, nor the ligaments are damaged.
Dislocation: displacement of the articular ends of the bones. Dislocations in young children are less common than fractures. This is due to the large elasticity and strength of the capsule-ligament apparatus.
Dislocations of the bones of the forearm in the elbow joint occupy the first place among all dislocations in early childhood. Much less common are dislocations of the shoulder, bones of the lower leg, and thigh.
Symptoms: the child cannot bend the arm or leg in the damaged joint; an arm or leg has taken an unusual position (hanging or curving strangely); Attempts to touch cause severe pain.
STRETCHING: damage to the ligaments, most often occurs when the arm or leg is tightened.
Symptoms: the baby can hardly move his foot or brush with a simple stretch. If a ligament rupture occurred, the mobility may be, on the contrary, too high.
BREAKING DISTANCE: Bone integrity is impacted by a direct blow or a fall.
Symptoms: the baby cannot move his arm or leg. The bone has shifted or changed shape.
If a child fell on his back or landed on his legs or buttocks, a compression fracture of the spine may occur (compression of the vertebrae) – in this case, the crumb will instinctively be afraid that you touch his back.
Many lesions are initially similar to each other and can be combined, so only special medical examinations help determine the severity of injuries. The task of parents is to help the baby before the doctor arrives.
Do not show your child that you are too worried. Your fear will be passed on to him, and it only hurts. Reassure the baby, ask (if he already speaks) and carefully examine.
If you suspect an arm or leg injury, make sure that he does not move his limb; if the baby fell on his back, he should not move at all.
The next step is first aid. If you suspect injuries of the extremities, it is better not to take off the clothes;
– fix the arm in a position where it is easiest for the child to hold it with a scarf or other suitable piece of cloth;
– put a splint on your leg, grabbing the joints above and below the intended fracture or dislocation – a small stick or board will do.
If a child has a bruise or a bump, attach a “snowball” wrapped in a handkerchief to the damaged area. But do not overdo it: 15–20 minutes is enough, when supercooling the vessels will suffer, and the swelling will increase even more.
1) Choose the right shoes for the child: winter boots should securely fix the ankle, and the sole must be ribbed, “anti-slip”.
2) Teach your child to walk properly: you should walk slowly on slippery ice, slightly slipping, as if on small skis.
3) Explain how safer to fall: sideways; when falling forward you can not put your hands in front of you and land on them; falling on your back, you need to press your chin to your chest and spread your arms as wide as possible.
4) Urgently call a doctor if:
- after a fall or blow, the baby cries harder and longer than usual;
- he turned pale, trembling, covered with cold sweat, his palms became cold and wet;
- the child cannot move the injured limb;
- the damaged limb “hangs” in an unnatural position;
- after head injury, nausea, vomiting, fever, loss of consciousness;
- after eye injury there is any change in the eyeball, swelling, bruise, lacrimation, photophobia, involuntary closing of the eyelids.
You should know the phone numbers and addresses of emergency around the clock assistance and emergency points in your area.
Emergency station at the Research Institute of Emergency Pediatric Surgery and Traumatology: around the clock and for free, regardless of place of residence.