As soon as the midwife cuts the umbilical cord, the baby’s body gets complete autonomy. From that moment on, those organs and systems that did not work while the crumb was in the mother’s stomach begin to fulfill their mission. The respiratory function is improving immediately, because it is one of the key.
But for the lungs to work, cardinal changes must occur in the body of the crumbs.
In the prenatal period, the walls of the lungs are pressed together, and the space between them is filled with amniotic fluid. The organ itself is almost not supplied with blood, because in the aquatic environment it does not work: oxygen is supplied to the baby exclusively through the umbilical cord vessels.
As soon as the doctor cuts it, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood sharply increases, and the brain immediately receives a signal of increasing hypoxia. The lungs receive a command to immediately get involved in the work, and the child takes his first breath, which is accompanied by a desired cry. A cry is needed for the muscles to move.
They stretch the lungs, which are immediately filled with air. In this case, the amniotic fluid is displaced, and the surfactants (surfactants) lining the bronchi, “spread out” along the walls of the lungs, which is why they cease to stick together and acquire volume.
The first breath includes not only the respiratory system: thanks to it, the circulatory system begins to rebuild and even the structure of the heart changes. In the womb, we have a three-chamber heart: venous blood is mixed with arterial blood, then to get into the aorta, bypassing the lungs. But as soon as the kid makes his first cry, it becomes a four-chamber.
Henceforth, arterial and venous blood no longer mix, and blood from the right atrium rushes straight into the lungs. Thus, the permanent small and large circles of blood circulation are established.
If 40 seconds after the birth of the child did not scream, the child suffers asphyxia – a strong lack of oxygen. In this case, urgent resuscitation measures will be required.
If there is no breathing for 5 minutes, brain cells die, so the main task of the doctor is to adjust it as soon as possible. The algorithm of actions in this situation is very tough and is determined by the order of the Ministry of Health.
In order to awaken the nervous system, the neonatologist first tries to influence the nerve endings located on the skin. For this, he strokes the back and heels of the baby with his palm.
If after the second attempt nothing has changed, artificial lung ventilation is performed. After breathing is improved, additional examinations are appointed (x-ray of the lungs, echocardiography, blood test, etc.) to find out the cause of the asphyxia.