What is pasteurized and sterilized milk?
There are many ways to handle raw milk: home boiling, pasteurization, sterilization. Milk is processed primarily to destroy all pathogenic bacteria that may be contained in the raw product.
Sterilized milk can be stored for months, but its bio-value is the lowest. During sterilization, raw milk is heated and kept for 20-30 minutes at a temperature of from 120 to 150 degrees.
It loses most of the nutrients. However, such a product can be stored for almost a year at room temperature and not sour.
However, some experts believe that not everything is so sad – milk loses only in taste, but the vitamins still remain.
Pasteurized milk is also heated, but only to 72-78 degrees and kept at this temperature for not so long. This is the most careful and gentle way in which milk retains all the vitamins and beneficial properties.
Such milk is stored for only a few days.
It is believed that any heat treatment violates the composition of milk, and if it is not possible to drink fresh milk, it is better to drink the farm.
However, experts say that factory pasteurized milk is not dead. It retains all the beneficial substances, but the viruses and microbes die.
Protein, fats and vitamins from heat protects the pressure in the three atmosphere.
What is normalized and reconstituted milk? What is the difference between whole and drinking milk?
Refurbished is milk, which, as the name implies, is “reduced” from condensed milk or dried milk powder by adding water.
Normalized milk is milk, the fat content of which is brought to that which is indicated on the package (for example, 4% of raw milk skimmed cream, bringing the fat content of milk to 3.6%).
Whole milk is milk, in which, after receiving from a cow, neither fat content nor the content of proteins, carbohydrates and other components has changed. Such milk is only subjected to heat treatment (pasteurization, or, less commonly, sterilization).
Drinking milk – is obtained from natural milk or is restored from powdered milk, and then also subjected to heat treatment. However, its composition may vary (increase or decrease the amount of fat, for example).
It is believed that if the package is written just “milk”, then it is drinking, not whole.
What fat milk prefer?
Due to the fat, milk has a light yellow color. In the dairy business, fat is quality.
And experts advise to choose whole milk with fat content from 3.6 to 4.6%, since it is in such a product that there are vitamins that contribute to a better absorption of calcium.
Is there any sense in skimmed milk?
In skimmed milk, fat actually is, but very, very little – about 0.1%. It is necessary to understand that degreasing is an artificial process, cows do not give such milk.
In skim milk, taste changes as well. And besides, according to recent studies, in skimmed milk there is no, for example, vitamin A.
Consumers, frightened by the fact that animal fats are sources of “bad cholesterol,” supposedly a scourge of modern humanity, often prefer low-fat milk or skim milk. Meanwhile, in 2014, scientists at Cambridge University found that there is no connection between dairy cholesterol and heart disease.
So for the heart there is no difference if you drink skimmed or full-fat milk.
There are one more paradoxical results of observations: children who consume whole milk remain healthy; and those who drink skimmed milk – more often then are obese.
Therefore, look for the inscription “whole” milk on the pack – this means that the milk contains the same percentage of fat content as in the initial raw materials, that is, no manipulations were carried out with it in defatting and restoring. A healthy person with a normal body weight, it is perfect.
And skim milk, leave for the diet of those who will appoint a doctor.
Are there differences in the composition of industrial and farm milk?
It all depends on the quality of the raw milk itself, as well as on how it was processed. If the milk from the farms comes already purified and cooled, with a small bacterial contamination and undergoes pasteurization with gentle regimes, then there are practically no differences in the content of milk in the milk.
In pasteurized milk there are no pathogens, and the composition of vitamins and trace elements differs little from raw milk. But if you are buying raw milk from unfamiliar farmers for the first time, then it is better to boil it.
Why does industrial milk clearly indicate fat content and farm milk has floating borders?
This is not quite true. The fat content of milk that can be bought on the farm is really “floating” (for example, the label indicates 3.5–4%, not 3.5 or 4) and depends on many factors: season, breed, cow’s and much more.
Similarly, on the shelves of stores you can buy industrial milk with a “floating” percentage of fat (for example, from 3.5 to 6.0%). This suggests that the milk coming from the farm was not defatted in production and did not restore the fat content in it.
Is it true that it is better to choose milk with a small shelf life?
Milk with a small shelf life is more useful than long-life milk. Therefore, for daily consumption, and especially in the children’s diet, it is better to give preference to him.
Milk long-term storage should not be consumed daily, but it is simply indispensable on long journeys, trips to nature and in the preparation of other culinary dishes, where it is used as an ingredient (baking, etc.).
Is it true that in milk there are hormones and antibiotics that fed the cows?
Antibiotics treat cows if they are sick. At this time, the cows are in quarantine, and their milk should not be recycled. Sometimes medicines can be given to animals as prophylaxis.
But especially antibiotics are not added to milk. And upon receipt of a batch of raw milk for processing, manufacturers carry out “quality control”, examining and analyzing raw materials.
On the other hand, chemistry has gone so far that now in almost any product you can find traces of almost the entire periodic table, including, for example, mercury and gold. However, manufacturers usually strictly monitor the excess of the established safe standard – in the first place, they are more comfortable with it.
As for hormones, it happens that manufacturers prick growth hormones to cows. But it is a peptide hormone that breaks down and is digested in the stomach, so this technology is considered safe.
In addition, in natural milk there are hormones and without any drugs. In fresh milk, for example, is full of estrogen – the female hormone.
As well as growth hormone, which is so necessary for babies who drink milk. At the same time, some experts believe that in adults it contributes to the growth of tumors.
Why does the store milk for a long time not sour? Is it unnatural?
Milk does not turn sour because bacteria do not develop in it. As you remember, in supermarkets do not sell raw milk – only processed.
That does not prevent him from remaining natural cow’s milk.
Milk is sour thanks to lactic acid bacteria, which feed on milk sugar (lactose) and produce lactic acid (it gives kefir, for example, its sour taste). These very bacteria are usually destroyed due to high temperatures.
And even when you open a pack of milk and leave it in the refrigerator, bacteria that have flown in through a small hole will multiply for a very long time, due to their small amount. This is what concerns sterilized milk.
But in pasteurized such bacteria more and the process of souring goes faster.
By the way, Dr. Komarovsky, following the recommendations of the chemist Sergey Belkov, gives advice to those who continue to doubt the naturalness of milk: if you pour ferment into the sterilized milk (that is, intentionally add these bacteria to it), then put it in a warm place, then the milk will be fermented and pretty quickly. Here you have the proof of the long-term storage of milk.
Why does the milk from the bags not sour, but goes out and goes bad?
Because not only lactic acid bacteria (which feed on milk sugar) can live in milk, but also such bacteria that feed on protein and fat. And if proteolytic or lipolytic bacteria prevail in an open milk bag, then the spoiled milk will not be sour, but rotten.
And if the so-called psychrotrophic microorganisms benefit from the fight against microorganisms (they reproduce well even at low temperatures, that is, in the refrigerator), then the milk will turn out to be rancid in taste.
What to look for when choosing a brand of milk?
The first step is to look at the degree of processing – pasteurization or sterilization. We look further expiration date.
If pasteurized milk has a shelf life of no more than 7 days, most likely all useful substances and microelements are preserved in it. Finally, you need to look not only at the package, but also the shelf.
Quality milk will still be in the fridge.
So which milk to choose?
It all depends on your goals.
If you use milk mainly for cooking other dishes, sterilized milk of the fat content specified by the recipe is quite suitable for you.
If you desperately count calories, but you cannot deny yourself milk, for example, coffee or porridge, skimmed milk will help you. Though it does not benefit your body, there will be no harm from it (and an excess source of fat, too).
If we are talking about milk for children, preference should be given to pasteurized milk, whole milk, with a short shelf life.
If you are sure of the need to buy “only natural products” – do not rush to buy the first available milk labeled “farm”. If the manufacturer is not yet known to you, first collect more information about it.
And only if nothing confuses you – make friendship with its dairy products.