In Russia, as in most countries of the world, the standard class 1 program includes the development of reading skills. But by default it is considered that by this age the child should already be able to read, and parents tend to develop these skills earlier. The teacher Ekaterina Tupitsyna suggests determining their goal before the start of classes: “Often parents think not so much about the child’s needs, but about their own ambitions, so first of all you need to decide whether the child really needs reading and writing at a particular age.
If parents see that without these skills his development is inhibited: he loves books, strives for new knowledge, wants to write and express himself, you need to help him. But it is important to take into account the peculiarities of the child’s physical and social-personal development.
From birth to 6 years, the child in a certain sequence of maturity and develop the brain, which are responsible for perception of information of the external world, its processing, analysis and feedback (for example: we hear a sound – we analyze it – we remember the image of the letter – we write).
In 1,5−4, the child actively communicates, develops conversational speech, as well as the ability to distinguish between the sounds of the language. This is the basis of competent listening comprehension (including spelling and punctuation).
At the same time, fine motor skills are developing – the ability to hold a pencil and a pen and easily “manage” them. All this determines readiness for the letter.
In the 3.5-4.5 years, the child has an interest in the letter. He leaves signatures under the drawings, first in the form of scribbles, and then, in order to make his inscriptions understandable to other people, he seeks to master the letters of his native language.
At the age of 5–7, the ability to analyze and summarize sign information (letters) and translate it into concrete images (sounds and words) develops. At the same age, the child begins to be more interested in the lives of other people, their opinions, wants to find out what is written by them.
All this provides the need for reading and readiness for it.
It is important that the early start of learning to read and write does not prevent other developmental games and activities. The technique should be suitable for the child according to age and must be fascinating and interesting for him. ”
Moreover, as the speech therapist and teacher Tatyana Kupriyanov believes, the child should be taught the letters when he masters the sound analysis. First you need to learn to clearly distinguish between sounds, not to confuse them, to pronounce correctly.
Both parents and teachers in kindergartens should pay attention to the sound of words, recite poems, say tongue twisters, ask questions: for example, what sound do you hear at the beginning of the word “mom”, what is at the end, etc. In 3-4 years of children are more interested in the sound side of speech, they experiment with sounds, invent their own combinations, new words. After that, by 5 years old, the letter designations of the sounds begin to interest him, and he can naturally move on to reading.
If you teach a child to read at an age when he is still not very good at speaking, he incorrectly utters many sounds, does not distinguish them by ear, this can lead to dyslexia – reading disorders, and subsequently to dysgraphia (letter violations). The fact is that initially it will incorrectly associate letters with their sound analogs: for example, in the word “track” instead of “f” he hears and says “c” and will read this letter in the same way, confuse it with words. ”
- Tell stories to the child and with him: make pauses so that the crumb can insert the familiar word itself.
- Tell your child about what he sees around: make simple sentences, later stories. Offer to tell others about what he saw, what was happening to him.
- Sculpt, play finger games, mosaic, string beads, play with grits and water. The development of fine motor skills will help the child to master the letter faster.
- Pay attention to the letters of children everywhere: on the street, in your favorite book, on the TV screen, in their names and the names of loved ones.
- Develop your imagination: discuss what (or whom) this or that letter looks like, and draw a letter-image: the letter B looks like a kangaroo with a bag for a baby, F – like a snowflake, C – like an elephant’s ear.
- Play games with letters and syllables. For example, in the store an adult names the first syllable in a word (MA), and the baby must find the product in which this syllable stands first (Pasta). If the child likes to look at his photos, suggest each one to come up with a name from one word (beach, park, football, etc.). Write the words on the cards and have the child arrange them under the appropriate pictures.
Until the mid-19th century, Russians were taught to read with a laborious letter-concise method. At first, the children memorized all the letters: az, beeches, lead, etc., then syllables crammed (beeches and az – “ba”) and only then began to read.
This could take a long time, sometimes up to two years.
In contrast to the literal method, teacher KD Ushinsky suggested introducing a sound literacy method in schools.
There is no need to memorize the names of letters, learning began with the selection of words from the words, from which then words are formed. The teacher uttered a sound, then showed how the corresponding letter was spelled. At first, a simple vowel (for example, “y”) was taught, and then a consonant (for example, “c”) was added.
The child was taught to pull the vowel sound and add to it a consonant. Then they read the syllable, where the consonant was the first, and the vowel is the second. To one syllable was added another, got the word.
In general, according to this principle, training is conducted in the first grades to this day. It is used in primers, constantly refined, improved.
The sound method is in good agreement with the structure of the Russian language – most words are read as they are written, there are few reading rules in Russian (unlike English or French).
1) Acquaintance with sounds and letters: a child learns to distinguish different sounds in words, learns that sounds are hard and soft, vowels and consonants, deaf and resonant and that each sound has its own designation – a letter.
2) Merging sounds into syllables: a child puts “m” and “a” in MA, etc. First there are syllables of two sounds, then from three or four, a soft and hard sign appears in them, several consonants or vowels appear in a row .
3) Making words from syllables: the child puts short words first, and then more and more complex ones, gradually goes on to read sentences and texts.
Advantages of the method: the abundance of benefits, parents do not need special training to conduct classes. It is better not to start targeted training using this method before 4–5 years, because a child should understand the difference between deaf and sonorous, soft and hard sounds, etc. The disadvantages of the sound method: having learned to read syllables, the child will read for a rather long time errors.
Perceiving a word in parts, children often do not understand the meaning of what they have read (therefore, it is necessary to ask the child to say the whole word). The younger the child, the more time it takes to start reading cleanly.
Teacher-speech therapist Tatyana Kupriyanova comments: “To teach children at an early age, it is better to choose a speech therapy book (written by Zhukova, Novotortseva). In them, letters are studied in a sequence that depends on the simplicity of pronouncing the corresponding sounds: first, the child becomes familiar with the designation of those sounds that he can precisely pronounce (simple vowels: a, o, u, etc.), and then more complex ones.
In school primers, the order in which letters are studied depends on the frequency of their use in Russian, and for a preschooler it can be difficult. ”
The method, which is fundamentally opposite to the sound method, is known in Russia as the Glen Doman method. Doman created a system of physical rehabilitation, as well as the general development of intelligence, learning to count and reading for children with disabilities, which then began to be applied to ordinary children.
The baby is invited to memorize whole words at once, which are written on a separate card in large red letters. According to Doman, having seen the word several times and having heard how it is pronounced, the child remembers it, and having learned a sufficient number of new words, he begins to read. Parents make cards and show them to the child several times a day, and you can start such classes from the first year of life.
But little kids are interested in monotonous cards, and parents get tired of constantly making new ones. Or the child does not perceive the words if they are written not on a card, but simply on a sheet of paper with a pencil or printed in a book.
In addition, the technique was developed for the English language: it has complicated reading rules and many short words that are easy to remember. The Russian language is arranged differently: the overwhelming majority of words are pronounced as they are written, and, knowing the letters and sounds (or warehouses), you can read any new word without memorizing how it looks.
In addition, in Russian, words change, and remembering, for example, the simple verb “is” in all its forms will be very laborious: I eat, you eat, he eats, etc. Therefore, experts recommend this material to be used as a supplement to other classes in speech development and reading. Tatyana Kupriyanova, a speech therapist, commented: “Doman’s cards are effective for children with impaired speech development: it’s difficult for them to recognize the connection between sound and a letter and for them memorizing whole words is the key to starting reading.
Ordinary children cards can help develop a visual memory, but not to teach how to fully read. If the goal is to make the child recognize individual words, captions under the pictures, the technique will work, but the child can proceed to the conscious reading of new words only by learning how to relate the letters to the sounds of his native speech.
If a child memorizes many words on cards, this will help him in the future to read faster those words that he already knows, but no more than that. ”
The teacher of the Montessori group, Irina Gorbatko, says: “The main differences between the Montessori method are a holistic approach to development, compliance of classes with the natural needs of a child of every age, active use of fine motor skills and sensory perception. And unlike other methods – a completely different order of mastering skills: first, children learn to write letters, words, and even entire stories, and only then read. Montessori reading instruction is not a set of highly specialized manuals that are intended solely for teaching literacy, but a whole system of activities and games that gradually develop the child’s intellectual and motor abilities, preparing him for the appearance of writing and reading skills.
The main idea of Montessori is to have a time for everything: to develop any skill there is a natural period, and if you impose on a child that which is not interesting to him at the moment, there will be no result or the child will not use the skill. For example, at about the age of 3.5–4 years, children accumulate a large vocabulary, are able to express with the help of words of thought, achieve their goals (ask other children to do something, negotiate). Children of this age begin to be keenly interested in the symbolic designation of sounds – letters.
They like to call sounds, play with letters, trace them, draw (after all, a letter is the same picture). If you maintain this interest, at the age of 4-5 years old, the child begins to spontaneously write individual words and whole sentences.
And by the age of 5 he is without coercion, learns to read with interest, following the natural logic of speech development. The child writes to express his thoughts, and begins to read when he is able and wants to perceive the thoughts of another. ”
1) Sound games. In the box with compartments are small items, the name of which has a certain sound. Each cell has a letter designating the sound.
The teacher shows the objects and pronounces them, focusing on the desired sound. Thus, the child learns to allocate sound at the beginning, in the middle, at the end of a word and subconsciously correlates it with the letter on the cell.
2) Prepare your hand for writing. Using special frames to prepare for writing and hatching, the child leads the pens through the slits, performing various movements that contain elements of letters.
Exercises teach to correlate the movement of the hand and the eyes, strengthen the fingers and make the child’s hand more mobile.
3) Work with letters. One of the key benefits is “rough letters”. These are letters made of rough material (like sandpaper). “Rough” letters are written, since it is assumed that smooth circular movements are more accessible to children.
The child remembers the alphabet better when tactile sensations are involved.
Training is conducted in a three-step lesson. First, the presentation: the adult lays out the tablet, calls the sound (that is, not the letter “um”, but the sound “m”) and runs the outline of the letter with his finger.
Gives a sign to the child and invites him to circle a letter, calling it again. Three letters are shown in one lesson, the next two are familiar and one or two new ones.
At the second stage, information is assimilated: an adult in turn asks to show letters or perform simple actions with them (put one letter on the edge of the table, take the second one to yourself or give it to another, etc.). If the second stage is passed easily, go to the third, if the child does not remember – return it to the first stage.
The third stage is the testing and automation of knowledge. “What is it?” The teacher asks to name all three letters in turn, one after another and in a random order. After this mini-lesson, the child is asked to repeat the familiar letters on their own or try to draw them with fingers on a tray with semolina. Also, the letters can be laid out of chopsticks or clay sausages.
After some time, you can complicate the game – blindfold the child and offer to guess the letter by touch. It is even more difficult to blindly fold a word from “rough” letters.
- Letter The next stage – the child himself, when he is ready for this, begins to write letters with his finger on the semolina, with a stick on the sand, and then with a pencil on paper. For many children, in the words of Maria Montessori, a real “letter burst” is born.
- Making words from the rolling alphabet. In the cells of a wooden box, lowercase and uppercase letters similar to “rough” letters are laid out. The teacher helps to match the letters in the movable alphabet (also gradually, three or four letters at a time). Then shows how you can combine them into syllables and words.
- Reading Actually reading begins with a series of cards. On each card there is a word and a picture denoting a word. Depending on the level of complexity, they are indicated by a specific color. Pink – each letter in the word is pronounced as written. Green – words are added with iotazed vowels after a consonant. Blue – difficulties in reading are introduced: unstressed vowels, unpronounceable consonants in the root, stunned consonants, b and b at the end of the word, combinations of LM-XI and so on. The white series automates reading – there can be several different difficulties in a word. This is the so-called intuitive reading – when the child reads the whole word and the word is remembered entirely. The child still does not know how to read, but already reads, relying on his own intuition, visual memory and previously acquired knowledge.
- The development of reading skills. You can play a variety of games: lay out cards with words like dominoes (Angle – Limon – Nosok, etc.), make sentences from cards with separate words, pull out strips of paper with tasks, perform them consistently, to find the hidden ” treasure ”, etc. Gradually, the child is offered simple picture books: at first it is just an object and its name, and then sentences and short texts.
The advantages of the Montessori method are the development in several directions at once: general development of intelligence, development of speech, reading and writing skills, fine motor skills, logic. But Montessori classes require some training from an adult and the creation of special conditions – an equipped environment where children can fully communicate, play and learn.
The warehouse method in learning to read has been known since the time of Leo Tolstoy. It is not by letter and not immediately with whole words, but the infant begins to speak from the warehouse: MA-MA, BA-BA.
Hence the idea that it is easier and more natural to read in the stores for the child.
Teaching children with the warehouse method requires parents to be constantly involved in the process: you need to systematically prepare for classes with the baby, invent various games so that he does not lose interest, because the material for learning is the same all the time.
Zaitsev’s Cubes The founder of the modern warehouse method in teaching reading was N.А. Zaitsev, who invented his famous cubes.
A warehouse is considered to be the merging of sounds: a consonant with a vowel, a consonant with a soft or hard sign, a separate vowel or a consonant. For example, KO-RO-VA, KO-Sh-KA and so on.
Warehouses in the manual Zaitsev located on the edges of cardboard cubes. These cubes differ in color, size and sound, which they emit (thanks to the filler of wood or “pieces of iron”). This variety helps children to feel the difference between vowels and consonants, voiced and deaf, soft and hard sounds.
The toolkit also includes tables on which all the Russian language stores are located at once, a book for adults with examples of assignments and a disc with songs and songs.
Methodologist Oksana Oganezova comments: “You can start working with children in cubes and Zaitsev tables from the beginning of the year. At first, children play with cubes: they build houses, roads, towers, trains, listen to how they sound, pay attention to their color.
Later, the guys begin to perform more complex tasks: for example, they put in a row all the cubes, where there is a warehouse with the letter “o”, repeat the warehouses behind the adult. All this helps the child to catch patterns in reading.
After some time, he begins to read the warehouses on his own, and then imperceptibly proceeds to reading whole words.
This technique requires adults a certain amount of training and constant involvement: you need to systematically prepare for classes with the baby, constantly invent new and new games in order to maintain the interest of the child (since the material is always the same). Zaitsev’s allowances are more suitable for group lessons in a development center or kindergarten, since many games have a competitive element.
In addition, teachers, as a rule, combine work on cubes with other tasks — they acquaint children with individual sounds and letters. If you manage to organize everything correctly, the child does it with pleasure, sees learning as a game and by 3-4 years of time masters reading. ”
“Skladushki” Voskobovicha “Skladushki” – a game for learning to read, created by Vyacheslav Voskobovich, the author of about 40 educational tools for children. Children 3-5 years old get acquainted with reading on the warehouse system. On 21 cards two warehouses are located; warehouses can be built from them for Sklabinsk residents, about which teaching fairy tales and songs are composed.
The book is attached to the game and CD-ROM.
The child, together with an adult, examines the drawings on the cards, reads poems, tells fairy tales and sings. He gradually memorizes the storage songs, sings them, shows the corresponding warehouses with his finger on the cards.
Then, remembering the warehouses, learns to make words from them, read individual words, and then short sentences. The manual can be used in games of different degrees of complexity, so it is suitable for both three-year and older preschoolers.
In addition to the “Folds,” there are other games of Voskobovich: for example, a designer, from parts of which you can assemble letters to better remember what they look like. Or a lacing game “Daisy”, where the child needs to thread a string through the holes with letters in a sequence that corresponds to the spelling of a word.
The most effective method works if the children are engaged in a small group (4−7 people). The developers claim that, playing for half an hour twice a week, a three-year-old child will be able to learn to read in six months, and a six-year-old child will be able to read in just one month.
Cubes “I read easily” Another modern manual on warehouse reading – cubes, developed by teacher Evgeny Chaplygin. They are intended for children from three years. The “Easy to read” technique is based on a gradual, very smooth, mastering of reading; there are more games here than in the Zaitsev program.
Compared to many other methods, the set of benefits is modest: 10 simple wooden cubes, 10 double movable cubes and a “crib book” for parents, where recommendations are given on how to conduct classes. Movable cubes interconnected by platforms can be scrolled to obtain new warehouses and new words. Children turn them with pleasure, turning the word MAMA into the word MASHA with one turn.
The combinations of letters on the cubes are selected in such a way that 20 words can be made up of two dynamic cubes, and of three of them – as many as 500.
In the manual there are basically no pictures, so as not to confuse the child, because the child can understand the illustration to the word “dad” as “man”, “man”, “uncle” and as a result will remember the word incorrectly. If the child wants a picture, he can draw it himself in a book for parents.
Advantages of the method: benefits do not need to be done by yourself, classes can be held at home, and no special training from an adult is required.