The nervous system of the smallest is similar to a computer without an operating system: all the necessary details are there, but the program that starts the work of the machine is not yet debugged. A newborn baby has already formed all parts of the nervous system (brain and spinal cord, peripheral nerves, conductive impulses to muscles and organs, and vice versa), but its structures have not yet matured, and the connections between areas have not yet been established. Gradually solve all these important tasks of the nervous system by the end of the first year of life.
The next stage is the setup of the program. All participants in the nervous system enter into active work, communication between departments improves, coordination of movements, a sense of balance, and motility are established.
The results of these improvements notice everything around: the crumb begins to walk, talk, it becomes more and more agile and skillful.
Independently walks, crouches, gets up, can get on a chair.
For a long time babbling; speaks a dozen words; imitates sounds; repeats the words for adults.
Recognizes the items in the picture; shows parts of his body.
Assembles a pyramid, opens and closes boxes.
He walks, runs, can climb and descend from the stairs himself.
Able to hold back when he wants to use the toilet; uses a pot.
Says simple sentences; knows about a hundred words.
Clearly sees, determines the distance by eye.
He knows how to dress and undress.
Uses a spoon and hairbrush as intended.
Holds a pencil, draws, sculpts.
Moves a lot, runs, jumps.
He says without a word, asks a lot of questions; vocabulary reaches 250–300 words; the word “i” appears in the speech.
Communicates with other children.
Knows his first and last name; remembers simple poems and melodies; considers drawings in books; listens to stories by pictures.
Able to concentrate for 5–10 minutes; may briefly occupy themselves independently.
Dancing; confidently coordinates hand and foot movements.
It becomes more enduring, can walk for a long time.
Speaks fluently; uses complex sentences, it becomes more figurative.
In a child, the membranes of the nerve fibers ripen through which the motor impulses pass (this process is called myelination). Thanks to this, the crumb can master the skills of movement at his age: for example, from 9 months he learns to stand, and by the year to walk.
As the baby grows, the nervous system becomes more and more coordinated. A connection is gradually established between them: this is due to the processes of the nerve cells (axons and dendrites), which branch out and, as a network, cover and connect more and more areas of the cerebral cortex — for example, the cortex and cerebellum.
As a result, targeted, coordinated movements become possible for the child, and this immediately affects his abilities. If a 4-month-old crumb uncertainly pulls the pens to the toy and often misses, then the one-year-old can tenaciously grab it with one hand and shake the rattle with the other.
The connections between the cells of the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum are strengthened more – and the baby begins to walk, swaying first, and then more confidently, in order to learn the space not only horizontally but also vertically by the age of 1.5: climb onto a chair or sofa, ride with slides And in 2 years the baby can not only walk, but also run fast.
The child gradually develops coordination, that is, joint and, very importantly, harmonious movements of different muscles. It is this amazing property, for example, that allows us to walk, keeping balance, and to hold objects in our hands without dropping them.
A two-year-old baby with his help can deftly catch a ball thrown at him and throw it at his mother.
With the development of the nervous system, the baby’s respiration and heart rate slows down.
The fun of one year old babies is simple: look at parents and imitate them. The little one with ecstasy rattles the lid of the saucepan like a mother; calls on the phone like dad.
Behind these uncomplicated entertainments lurks ancient reflexes of the nervous system – playful and imitative. They are peculiar not only to humans, but also to animals: look, for example, at the romp of kittens that attack each other, like real hunters.
It is in the game that both the animals and the guys master possible life situations. Closer to 2 years of age, children’s games are getting a little more complicated: they have a kind of plot (for example, to feed and put a doll to sleep), and the circle of participants expands – the crumb attracts adults and other children to its fun.
So the child gradually masters the art of communication.
In the work of the nervous system of the baby comes a new stage: it appears. Until the year, the main means of communication for the child was crying, and closer to 12 months, he begins to pronounce the first meaningful syllables and words: the pussy understands well that “ma” is mother, “av-av” is a dog, “w- g »- the car.
In order for the crumb to begin to speak and understand the words addressed to him, he must form the so-called second signaling system, which only man has, the connection between the verbal signals and the meaning behind them. Before the year, children do not understand the words of their parents too well, because babies react to more specific signals: intonation, touch, sensation, smell (experts call it all the first signal system that animals also have).
But now, in order for the child to move away from the hot oven, the mother does not need to divert him, it suffices to say: “It is impossible”. By the age of 2, babblers chatter without stopping — often in their own language.
In order for the little one to outgrow the bird’s dialect as quickly as possible, it is important for parents not to switch to the baby’s speech, but to pronounce all the words correctly, encouraging the child to follow his example.
By this time, the baby confidently coordinates the movements of the arms, legs and body; keeps balance well. Now the child can learn to dance, ski or skate, do gymnastics.
The baby is no longer minced in small steps: the length of its step increases, and the pace of walking slows down. The crumb becomes slimmer: for 4 years he has developed a correct posture, straightened his shoulders.
Thanks to the development of the nervous system, the movements of the child are improved and complicated. The babies develop small movements of the hands – motility, and the crumb learns to fasten and unbutton the buttons, assemble the designer and the puzzle from small details, draw, sculpt.
If parents start developing these skills in a child, they will be able to cultivate abilities in drawing, handicrafts, and simply beautiful handwriting in him, because all this is laid now.
The development of speech is impossible without the development of muscles involved in the formation of sounds.
One of the features of the nervous system is small. 3–4 years of age is that the excitation processes in the cerebral cortex spread more easily than the inhibition processes — the latter are not yet sufficiently formed. Therefore, a child cannot concentrate on the performance of a task for a long time, its limit is 5–10 minutes. All this is very important for parents to take into account, because it is at this age that many begin to teach children foreign languages, music, and dance.
The main rule of learning: do not overdo it, otherwise you risk not only to cause the child a persistent dislike for lessons, but also overwork.
At the age of 3, the game helps a child to become aware of his “I”, to feel himself an independent person, no longer associated with his parents. This stage is very important for the development of the nervous system and psyche. “I myself!” – the child repeats every now and then and tries to dress and undress, wash and comb her hair.
It is finished: the kid conquered one of the most difficult peaks in the work of the nervous system – speech. The muscles that are involved in the formation of sounds (lips, tongue, sky, larynx, pharynx), now work more smoothly, and the crumb finally overcomes many previously unresponsive sounds.
Toward 4 years for the child comes the stage of questions: he communicates with other people, asks countless questions, learns to build relationships with his peers.