Given that on average a newborn baby weighs only 3–3.5 kg, and the weight gain is at least 10–12 kg, the question arises: why? In fact, the answer is simple. First, during pregnancy about 1.5 liters (from about 5 liters to 6.5 liters) increases the volume of circulating blood.
This is necessary so that for all 9 months the baby receives oxygen and nutrients in the required volume, and the mother’s body after birth can recover from blood loss faster. Secondly, as the period increases, not only the baby grows, but also the uterus and the new organ – the placenta.
Third, the chest is noticeably heavier. Fourth, under the skin deposited small fat reserves.
They are needed both in order to provide the crumbs with all necessary, and in order to fill the energy costs during childbirth.
“Uneasy” kilograms appear gradually. If we take the average data, then by the 10th week of pregnancy, the expectant mother recovers only by 500–600 g. The uterus at this moment weighs 150 g (out of pregnancy — 50 g), the baby — 5 g, the placenta — 20 g. Amniotic volume fluid is 30 ml.
The amount of circulating blood increases by 100 ml.
At 20 weeks of gestation, the blood volume increases by another 500 ml, and the amniotic fluid becomes 350 ml. The uterus weighs 320 g, the baby – 300, the placenta – 170 g. The woman in total is gaining 4-4,5 kg.
At 30 weeks the volume of blood increases by 700 ml, and amniotic fluid – up to 750 ml. The uterus already weighs 600 grams, baby – 1.5 kg, placenta – 430 g. The increase is approximately 8.5−10 kg.
By the beginning of labor, the baby weighs 3–3.5 kg, the uterus – 1 kg, the placenta – 650 g, the volume of amniotic fluid is about 800 ml, and the blood – a maximum of 6.5 liters. So grows another ten kilograms.
Of course, all these indicators are relative and depend on the individual characteristics of the expectant mother. And above all – on the type of her physique, which is determined by body mass index (BMI).
To calculate this indicator, it is necessary to divide the weight in kilograms by height in meters, squared.
If the BMI is less than 19, the constitution is asthenic, in other words, the woman is thin. So much is allowed, including recovering by the end of pregnancy by as much as 15–16 kg.
And 10 of them need to “get” to 30 weeks.
Indicator 19-26 indicates a normal physique. A woman needs to gain 10–12 kg, of which 9–10 kg should be collected by the same 30 weeks.
If the ratio turned out to be more than 26, then the expectant mother has excess weight and she is allowed to recover by only 8−9 kg, of which 5−6 kg should “come” by the 30th week.
But these figures are averaged, and for every woman the doctor should calculate the ideal weight gain using a special scale. But you can control your kilos yourself.
It is better to do this at the beginning of pregnancy once a week, and after 30 weeks – daily.
A balanced diet can help avoid weight problems. In the first half of pregnancy, it is better to switch to four meals a day, and in the second half you can sit at the table 5-6 times a day.
Appetite increases, and it is desirable to satisfy it as it appears, without waiting for the feeling of hunger becomes unbearable. Then the portions will be moderate, and the expectant mother will not pick up extra kilos.
In the first half of pregnancy, the baby is just beginning to develop, so the daily caloric content of food is 2400–2700 kcal – about the same as in non-pregnant women of average height of normal build. In the second half of pregnancy, not only the baby is actively growing, but also the placenta, and the mammary glands are also enlarged, so the need for nutrients increases dramatically.
Daily caloric intake should be already 2800−3000 kcal. But it is necessary to count not only calories: it is equally important to observe the balance of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and trace elements.
Proteins are the main building material, new tissues and organs of the future baby are formed from them. Their daily portion is 100−110 g. Moreover, animal proteins, which have essential amino acids, should make up 60%.
At the same time, a third of the daily protein intake should be in lean meat and fish, 25% in dairy products, 5% in eggs, and the rest in legumes. So, on the day of the future mother should eat 100−150 g of veal or beef, or 100−150 g of cod, perch, pollock, mackerel, salmon or other marine fish, 50−100 g of cottage cheese (fat 7−9%), 50−70 g cheese
Fats are a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are very important for the body, which are necessary for the normal development of the retina and baby’s brain structures and the prevention of pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia (otherwise, preeclampsia). A day is enough 50−70 g of fat.
Of these, 30 g – butter, the rest – vegetable oils, seeds and nuts.
Carbohydrates provide the body with energy. The daily need for expectant mothers – 500 g per day.
Preference should be given to “slow” carbohydrates, which are found in vegetables, unsweetened fruits, whole grains, bran, bread and pasta made from durum wheat.
Vitamins and minerals in natural products, especially those that have undergone heat treatment, are contained in insufficient quantities. Special vitamin-mineral complexes prescribed by a doctor can help fill the shortage.
If, despite all efforts, excess weight still appeared, additional examinations will be required, because in this case the child will increase the risk of hypoxia (oxygen starvation), and a woman in the second half of pregnancy may experience such serious complications as pre-eclampsia and gestation. diabetes. In full women also varicose veins often occur.
In addition, if the mother is overweight, then the baby is likely to grow large. Then, during childbirth, his too big head may not pass through the pelvic bones (this complication is called a “clinically narrow pelvis”).
Deviations from the norm, as a rule, make it possible to identify a general urine test, a biochemical blood test and a blood test for sugar. Suspecting pre-eclampsia, the doctor will definitely establish control over blood pressure. If everything is in order, no medications will be needed, you just have to adjust the food: give up fast carbohydrates, fast food, fatty and salty foods and enrich the diet with special protein supplements for pregnant women.
For the prevention of varicose veins, the doctor will recommend to wear compression knitwear and not to forget about physical exertion. Water aerobics, swimming, yoga for pregnant women and regular walks will benefit.
If the examination reveals preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus or other disorders, treatment will be required, including medication. It is impossible to go on a diet during pregnancy in any case, otherwise the baby will not receive the necessary substances in the required amount.
How many kilograms a woman gains during pregnancy depends not only on the initial body mass index, but also on other circumstances. For example, with age, the tendency to corpulence increases, and the older the expectant mother, the more likely to gain excess weight. If in the early stages of a woman there was toxicosis, and with it a poor appetite, then in the second half of the pregnancy the body will try to catch up, and then a sharp increase in weight is possible. To provoke a quick increase in kilograms can the baby himself.
If, due to genetic reasons, it is large, then the placenta will weigh more. In case of polyhydramnios, when the volume of amniotic fluid is more than 1.5 liters, and in case of multiple pregnancies and in the case when a woman is waiting for twins or triplets, the increase usually also exceeds the norm.