How dangerous: It is necessary to take into account the age of the child, the area of the burn and its degree. Babies under the age of 3 months are hospitalized in any case. Inpatient treatment is also required in a situation:
1) when the size of the burned area is larger than the baby’s palm;
2) in a III degree burn, when the most deeply located layers of the skin are damaged, often together with nerves and blood vessels (the skin becomes white, dry, similar to the peel).
What you can do: Substitute the burned area under a stream of cold water, hold for at least 10 minutes, capturing also the skin areas near the burn. Then cover the injured area with a damp cloth, give the baby an anesthetic and wait for the doctor.
In no case do not apply ice, do not lubricate burns with ointment, fat, butter, cream or petroleum jelly!
With a weak burn I degree, when the skin turns slightly red, after a cold compress, apply a healing ointment and antiseptic. If you have blisters on your skin (second degree burn), do not pierce them – you can get an infection.
It is better to change the wet dressing several times a day and give the baby paracetamol.
For chemical burns, the first 5–15 minutes are decisive: wash the wound with running cool water. It is desirable, even when transporting a child to the hospital, to continue to wash the wound – for example, with water from plastic bottles that can be taken with you from home.
When to ask for help: Calling a child emergency room is necessary for II and III degree burns, for a large area of damage, for eyes, esophagus and joints burns. In the latter case, the skin will stretch during healing, which can reduce the mobility of the joints, so consulting a doctor is required.
Clothes soaked in hot liquid can increase the degree of burning, so immediately strip the baby. However, if the tissue is stuck to the body, do nothing, wait for the doctor!
How dangerous: Very, if the child has difficulty breathing or begins to choke.
What you can do: In case the child breathes with difficulty, but remains conscious, put the baby in a comfortable position, calm down, and make sure that his breathing remains even. Call “Ambulance” and do not try to help the child on your own: you risk inadvertent movement to block the breath if a foreign body is stuck in the vocal cords.
In a situation when the child began to choke, turn blue, the pupils widened, the heartbeat slowed down, the body was shaken by convulsions, do not hesitate! Baby up to 1 year, put his stomach on his lap and hit hard between the shoulder blades to knock out a foreign body from the throat. Turn your older child back to you, clasp at chest level, place your hand clenched in a fist over the area between the navel and costal arcs, put the palm of your other hand on top and hit with a quick push upwards.
If necessary, you can do this several times.
When to ask for help: If the child staggers, can not cough up, just call the ambulance!
How dangerous: To determine whether the baby has suffered from a fall is VERY difficult without the help of a doctor. The consequences of this “flight” will depend on the height of the fall and the properties of the surface on which the child lands. Falling is especially dangerous in two cases: if the child is under 6 months old or when the crumb has dropped from a height of more than 1 meter.
Be sure to consult a doctor! A child may have a concussion or intracranial bleeding.
What you can do: The first thing you need to pay attention to is whether the child lost consciousness, even for a short time. This observation will help establish how serious the injury is, which will determine your further actions. If the child started crying immediately after the fall – this is a good sign.
So he did not lose consciousness. In this case, you should console the baby and give a painkiller.
If the crumb has crammed a cone, apply a rolled up clean cloth and a bag with ice to the sore spot, and then – apply a bruise with an ointment of the “Rescuer” type. Arnica based ointment will help to avoid bruises and hematomas.
When to ask for help: Most often, headers are safe, but in rare cases can cause internal bleeding. After falling and hitting for a few hours, carefully monitor the behavior of the baby. If the crumb is excessively sluggish or, on the contrary, unusually restless, the baby is sick, vomiting appears, he refuses to eat, play, inconsolably cry, sleep poorly, constantly hold his head or complain of pain – call the doctor.
If after the fall the child lost consciousness for a long time, if there is a wound on the head, lay the child on its side and immediately call the Ambulance. Pending the doctors head in the area of the wound can be bandaged (you cannot press on the injured site).
How dangerous: Electric shock is not always harmless. It can cause both burns and heart irregularities.
What you can do: Immediately turn off the electricity. If this cannot be done, remove the current source with a dry wooden squeegee, chair, or other non-conductive wooden object. You can get up on a thick telephone directory or on a high dense pile of newspapers and release the kid.
If the child feels pain, give him paracetamol.
For babies who received an electric shock, experts recommend testing the heart for 24 hours.
When to ask for help: In a situation if the child has become lethargic, sleepy, it is difficult to breathe, call the Ambulance. In the absence of signs of life, act immediately, without waiting for the arrival of doctors!
Do artificial respiration and closed heart massage: put the child on the floor, open your mouth, squeeze the children’s nose with your thumb and forefinger and, holding his mouth with his lips, make an energetic exhalation. If the baby’s rib cage rises, then the airway is passable.
After 2 quick exits, sharply but gently press on the chest 15–20 times, and then again do a quick 2 exhalation – and so on alternately. Infants up to one year old are massaged with the thumbs of both hands (or tips of the index and middle), and after a year for children, with the palm of one hand.
How dangerous: The severity of the injury depends on the location of the injury, the depth of the cut and the strength of the bleeding. If the wound is superficial, do not panic.
But with a deep cut, heavy bleeding, take action immediately!
What you can do: Thoroughly rinse the wound under cool water. Then disinfect with hydrogen peroxide.
Edge process green paint, very carefully, so as not to burn the fabric, and apply a bandage. If there is abundant arterial bleeding (scarlet blood flow), apply a tourniquet, for example, a rubber tube or a tight twisted piece of cloth, above the wound.
In case of venous bleeding (slowly oozing dark-colored blood), a squeezing bandage should be applied to the cut site.
If a foreign body sticks out of the wound – a splinter, a wire – clamp the place around the wound, but not its own.
When to ask for help: When a large, deep and open wound (when the two edges do not converge) or a cut on the face may require surgery, stitches. In this case, consult a doctor immediately.
On “any fireman” do not feed the baby: operations are done on an empty stomach.
How dangerous: Extremely dangerous as cleaning products contain harmful chemicals. One of the main precautionary measures: store chemicals on a high shelf or in a closet with a secure lock.
Never pour cleaning products into containers for storing food liquids, such as glass or plastic water bottles, so that children do not drink it by mistake.
What you can do: Try to understand what a child has swallowed. Do not drink, do not try to induce vomiting.
Drinking (water, milk, juice) can lather the detergent and complicate the situation, and vomiting can cause fluid to enter the respiratory tract and lungs.
When to ask for help: In any case, call “Ambulance.” Doctors will be able to determine the degree of danger, hospitalized if necessary.
In anticipation of the doctors, lay the child on its side, with one foot on the other and slightly tilting its head back.