Child development and learning should be based on the principle from simple to complex. Do not immediately try to teach your baby numbers. Children under 4 years of age have a poorly developed abstract thinking, which is necessary for the perception of signs and symbols.
But you can acquaint the child with the properties of objects (their shape, size, color), teach them to compare and classify them, help them understand the simplest logic and even name the number of objects, recalculate them.
There are techniques to teach a child from the first months of life. Glen Doman, for example, offers to show the cards to children, which depict red circles, and call them the number.
On the first card there is one circle, on the second this one and another one, on the third one these two and one more, etc. A child is really from the first months of life able to see the difference between a card with two points and a card with one. Using the abilities and interest of the infant, from an early age one can draw his attention to the shape of objects (hang up contrasting triangles, squares, circles, diamonds over the crib); on the number (here are a lot / few toys) or – during a gymnastics or massage – on spatial relationships (forward, back, left, right).
The child’s future success depends on how interested the subject is. An example of parents, their attitude to this science is very important.
If mom, starting a lesson, sighs: “Oh, this mathematics! A nightmare! ”Or at the first mistake or thoughtfulness, the baby shakes his head:“ And he will have problems with algebra, like mine! ”, Then the kid may decide that math is bad and boring.
Try to turn the study of mathematics into an exciting game.
To acquaint the child with the concept of “color”, you need any items that are the same in shape and size, but differ in color: cubes, pencils, paper circles, etc. By showing a child one of the objects, you can name it color, although At this stage, this will be the “zone of proximal development,” that is, what the child will learn a little later. In the meantime, learn to find objects of the same color.
Show how to put the blue circle on the blue cube, how to load the typewriter with only red pencils.
To assimilate the concept of “color”, you can use board games-hodilki, but those where instead of points and numbers on the cube are colored faces and identical circles.
If you show the one and a half year old baby a ball, he will be able to touch it in the bag. From this age you can begin to study the shape of objects.
Acquaintance with the form occurs on the same principle as with color. Try together to find all the round objects in the house as well as all the rectangular, triangular. You can make cardboard figures muzzles and play with them, at the same time introducing the child with emotions.
Terrible, angry rectangle, surprised circle, sad triangle (although, by the way, very cheerful from the reverse side). Compile from the figures of houses, man, Christmas trees, cars.
Gradually bring the child to the classification of objects, the allocation of common properties. You can already select items of the same color or one shape.
The concept of “size” will be added later.
The concept of size is best given with objects of the same shape and color. You can use plasticine and roll up two red balls – big and small.
Being engaged in this topic, it is interesting to play in a family of foil balls. Roll up large and small balls of candy wrappers, put them in a matchbox – a house – and start a regular staged game.
Large balls are adults, and small balls are children.
Now it would be good to explain to the child that a box is big for a large object, and a small box is suitable for a small one. You can use ready-made frames and inserts Montessori.
They provide an opportunity to exercise with the form and size.
To explain a numerical sequence to a child, he needs to be shown what the words “in front”, “for”, “after”, “on the left”, and “on the right” mean. If you ask your child what number is after 5, he will not be able to answer, even if he learns, as a reader, numbers from 1 to 10.
Get started with the game. Arrange the soft toys and ask to give you a bunny, which is behind the puppy, then the toy to the right of the bear and so on. Try to use these words as often as possible.
Gathering with the child on the street, pronouncing: “We put a sock on the left foot, now on the right foot. “And waiting for your turn, tell me that you are following this man, that he is ahead of you, but behind you is that woman with the girl.
To begin with, clarify the concepts of “different”, “identical”, and then find out whether the objects are the same in shape, in color, in size. Speaking of size, we can use the words “more” and “less.”
What is the biggest ring? What is the smallest nested doll? Or better: “The smallest matryoshka is crying – take pity on her.”
In the game, arrange the figures in size, from small to large and vice versa.
It seems that everything is clear. However, not so simple.
Try to compare with the child the amount of water in the same jars. If the water is on the same level, the baby will say: “Equal.”
But it is worth pouring water from one can into a narrow bottle – and in the eyes of the baby it will immediately become larger.
So that the child understands how the size of the object changes, we continue the experiments with water, and we also use clay and some granular substance and show that, in order to become more, you need to add, stick, add, add. And if you cast, pour, take away – will be less.
If you simply move the object to another place, its size will not increase and will not decrease.
Acquaintance with the score usually begins in 2−3 years with the concept of “one – many”. Let’s play in the “greedy”!
The greedy person takes a lot of toys and barely gives only one. A greedy person takes a lot of apples and shares only one.
We ask: “Give us one apple! You have a lot of them! ”
Find what is in the room a lot, and what is only one. Practice drawing a lot of flowers and one.
Pay attention to the child that he has one nose, and a lot of hair. Gradually move to the new number – two.
Two hands, two legs, two eyes, two ears.
You can already begin to compare items by quantity, but be sure to show that you are not comparing to fit. The elephant is big and the mice are small, but it is one, and there are two mice.
Each time you enter a new number, underline that it is one more than the previous one. Do not rush to learn the score to 10.
A child can really remember him quickly, but it will be learned like a poem. Do not let a child memorize a counting of the type “One, two, three, four, five, a bunny went out for a walk”. Children learn the order of numbers up to 10 in such a way that when you ask them to count to 8, they cannot stop and count again to 10.
We also need conscious remembering and understanding that five does not just follow the four, but denotes the number.
Play dominoes with your baby (not with animals or berries, but with dots). This is a great game for understanding the composition of the number and comparing the number.
Recount everything that falls under your arm: dumplings, cutlets, pencils. Going up the stairs, count them and the mailboxes in the entrance.
But remember: each new number is the result of adding one to the previous one.
Teach your child to find as many items as you have. Take five spoons and ask the kid to give you the same number of forks, etc. Now you can take a regular board game with chips! Compare the same number of items most conveniently, putting them in pairs.
If there is not enough saucer for one cup, there are fewer saucers. The concept of “zero” is the most interesting to give, asking funny questions.
Cecile Lupan told us some of them: “How many cows are there in your pocket?” Or “How many crocodiles are in our bathroom?”.
Cecile Lupan argues that a child from birth exercises logic, because the transfer of basic knowledge occurs through the behavior of parents, who act sequentially, maintaining a certain logical order of things.
In 1,5−3 years old, the child will not solve logical problems, as long as he can be acquainted only with logical-causal connections. Use “because” and “therefore” constructions in speech and play with the baby. It is necessary for the child to understand that everything has a cause and effect.
You can play a fantastic game – try to think of “what would happen if. “. By the age of 4, the baby will be able to draw conclusions and predict the result of his actions. If his book is under the dictionary, and there is still a box on the dictionary, he understands that he needs to remove the box in order to pick up the dictionary and take the book!
In order for the kid to successfully master the mathematics, encourage him to think. If you propose a child to determine “which object is superfluous,” emphasize that to answer this question you must answer another: “What do most subjects have in common?”
To prepare a child for solving problems, you can tell him stories – problems with answers. For example: “The Gnome Vasya carried 5 pies to his grandfather — 2 with cherries and 3 with apples. There were more apple pies because the grandfather loved them more. ”Also offer the kid“ good examples ”.
Take three dice, ask the child to count them. Then put them under the shawl, take out only one and ask how many cubes there are. To answer the question, the baby must not only count two dice, but take away three from one.
The game is interesting in mathematics, makes you think and explains the principles of action.