By the time the child is born, all parts of his nervous system (brain and spinal cord, peripheral nerves, conductive impulses from the brain to the muscles and organs and back) are already formed, so that further development is due to the ripening of the cerebral cortex. In a newborn baby, the surface of the cerebral hemispheres is relatively smooth, and the convolutions and grooves are in their infancy.
As the baby picks up new activities, learn about the world around it, the number of convolutions and furrows will increase, and connections between certain sections of the central nervous system will also be established and improved. Intensive maturation of the cerebral cortex occurs during the first three years of life, and its development continues throughout life.
And in order to constantly appear new convolutions, improved communication between the departments of the central nervous system, not only the child but also the adult must constantly acquire new knowledge, skills and abilities.
The first time a neurologist should be visited when the child turns 1 month. Then, until the baby is 1 year old, scheduled examinations are held every 3 months.
After 1 year – once a year. And although an indispensable attribute of a neurologist is a special hammer with which he checks the tendon reflex, this is not the main thing to assess the condition of a baby.
The doctor first checks the presence and extinction of unconditioned reflexes and the appearance of conditioned reflexes, assesses the development of the baby.
The first 2 months after birth, the baby gets used to the new conditions. Although his nervous system is immature, unconditioned, or inborn, the reflexes (for example, sucking, searching, grasping, supports and automatic walking) are well developed.
Such involuntary reactions of the nervous system to irritation that occurs inside the body or outside help the baby to adapt to new conditions of life and to establish contact with the environment. Checking them, you can judge how the development of the nervous system.
After all, when the cerebral cortex begins to develop, it takes control of the main part of the nervous system and the unconditioned reflexes must fade away and give way to conditional. The most elementary of the latter are produced by the end of the 2nd month of life: for example, the child calms down, being in the hands of the mother or hearing calm music.
In 3–6 months, the connections between individual parts of the nervous system become more complex. In order to constantly improve them, the little one needs to get more and more new impressions, to master new movements.
It is no coincidence that nature has arranged so that it is at this time that the baby has the need to communicate with adults. And since the baby can only cry and communicate and state its needs only by crying, the latter changes depending on the situation.
To replenish the “piggy bank” of impressions, wear a toddler around the apartment while you are awake and name the items he sees.
In 5 months there is an unconscious babbling. This is not a speech, the baby is only trying to pronounce sounds and syllables.
In the second half of the year, the cerebral cortex continues to develop at a rapid pace. Thanks to this, the child stays awake longer, respectively, receives more new impressions, which means that new connections between different parts of the nervous system become more complex and appear. As a result, new skills and reactions are acquired.
For example, at 6-8 months, the child can sit on his own, he has disturbing reactions to strangers. Teach your baby to repeat your movements, accompanying your actions with requests: “shake your head”, “clap your palms” – and soon the baby will start doing what you ask him without your help.
By 8 months, the baby crawls well, gets up in the crib, holding onto the support, and starts walking on the crib, turning over the support with the handles. The movements become more and more complicated: the child rolls the ball, pulls the string, presses the bell button, puts small objects into large ones.
In 10-12 months, the foundations of speech are laid. It is time to form a passive vocabulary, since the stage “I understand everything, but I cannot say so far” begins. When a child requires something, pretend that you do not understand him, ask again, say that you need to say: “Say -“ drink ”,“ give ”,“ let’s go ”.
Teach your child the question: “Where is the dog, the wardrobe, the cot?” Show them, and find nose, hands, feet, mouth, etc. in toys.
At this age, the baby moves freely around the apartment, gets it and examines everything that comes its way. Considering the books with him, tell me what is drawn in the pictures, teach him to communicate with other children and adults.
In a child, the membranes of nerve fibers ripen through which motor impulses pass, experts say that myelination occurs. Due to this, for example, by the age of 1.5, the baby confidently climbs up on chairs and armchairs, and by the age of 2, the precarious gait becomes confident, the crumb begins to run fast.
Since the processes of the nerve cells branch out and cover more and more areas of the cerebral cortex, the nervous system begins to work more consistently. As a result, the child can hold the toy hare tenaciously with one hand and shake the rattle with the other. Little by little, coordination of movements and coordinated movements of various muscles develop.
Develops major motor skills. The child holds objects in his hands without dropping them.
By the age of 2 he can catch the ball thrown to him and throw it back.
Complicated and games. If a peanut rattles off the lids of pans a year ago and talks on a toy phone, obviously copying the actions of adults, then by 2 years a simple plot appears in the games, a specific sequence of actions.
The baby can feed the doll and put it to bed, hold the machine with one hand and load sand into it. In addition, the crumb begins to play with other children.
At this age, another significant event occurs: a child has a speech. He deliberately utters certain syllables and understands perfectly well that mother is “ma” and grandmother is “ba”. In order for the little one to speak in whole words and begin to understand the speech addressed to him, he must form a connection between the word and its meaning – the so-called second signaling system, which only man has.
Before the age of one, children do not understand very well what they are told and do not react to words, but to smells, intonation, touch, sensation (this is the first signal system that animals also have). Therefore, one should support one’s words with clear gestures, try to keep the speech always emotionally colored. But by the age of 2, so that the baby doesn’t put his finger in the socket, the mother no longer needs to pull the crumb away from her, you just have to say: “No!”
At the age of 2, the most talkative period begins – the child tirelessly taratorites, sometimes in his own “bird’s” language. So that speech development does not linger, it is important for adults not to lisp, not to distort words, but to pronounce them correctly, to speak distinctly.
The kid confidently coordinates his movements, keeps balance well. He can be taught to dance, ski, skate. Develop small movements of the hands – fine motor skills.
The baby learns to fasten and unbutton buttons, to collect puzzles from small parts, to draw, to sculpt. At the same time, the development of fine motor skills stimulates speech, because peripheral speech centers are located on the palm of your hand. The joint work of the muscles of the lips, tongue, palate and other organs involved in the formation of sounds is established, and many sounds that he could not pronounce before are becoming subject to the child.
Due to this, his speech becomes clear and understandable. Ability to generalize marks a new stage of mental development.
Due to this, vocabulary is expanding: synonyms and generalization words such as crockery, clothing, and transport appear.
But it must be borne in mind that at this age the processes of inhibition are not yet sufficiently formed and the crumb cannot long concentrate on the fulfillment of the task. You can keep his attention for a maximum of 10 minutes.
It is important not to overdo it and not overload the toddler with new knowledge, trying to develop his abilities, otherwise he may overwork.
At 3 years old, the baby begins to recognize himself as an independent person, one can constantly hear from him: “I myself!” He tries to dress and undress himself, brush his hair, wash dishes, vacuum, dust.
Closer to 4 years, there is a period of questions: the child actively communicates with other people and wants to receive information from them that interests him. In addition, at this age, the baby is already actively communicating with peers and learning to build relationships with people around him.
Every tenth newborn in the first days of life is diagnosed with perinatal encephalopathy. What violations does it include and how can they be compensated?
Perinatal encephalopathy (PEP) is an international diagnosis that includes all non-infectious lesions of the central nervous system that occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or under 1 year of age. Most often hypoxia leads to them – lack of oxygen, in second place – birth trauma.
Due to insufficient development of structures or elements of the brain, an infant may experience increased intracranial pressure, increased neuro-reflex excitability syndrome, and motor disturbances. In the first case, a large spring is strongly erupted and the head circumference quickly increases, in the second, the child has trouble sleeping, his limbs tremble violently, and convulsions may develop at high temperatures. In the third – increased muscle tone, unconditioned reflexes do not fade by the due date.
Neurosonography (ultrasound of the brain through a large spring) and an electroencephalogram are performed to assess the performance of the brain and blood vessels.
Most often, the PEP causes only minor disorders. Massage, physiotherapy exercises, conifers and salt baths help them to compensate.
For more serious disorders, the child is seen by a pediatrician and a neuropathologist. In such a case, drug therapy is also prescribed.
Video: What is “intracranial hypertension syndrome” and why does it occur in children of different ages?