The autonomic nervous system is involved in the regulation of the physiological processes of all human organs. It is divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, whose activities are most often “opposite.”
For example, the first causes an increased heart rate, a narrowing of most arteries and veins, and a relaxation of the muscles of the digestive tract. The second, on the contrary, is responsible for slowing the heart rate, dilating the blood vessels, accelerating the motility of the digestive tract.
In order for the body to function properly and be able to adapt to changes in the external environment (for example, changes in temperature outside the window or changes in atmospheric pressure), both sections must work synchronously and harmoniously. As soon as one of them fails, dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system develops.
This is what we are talking about when we use the term “vascular dystonia” which is not entirely correct from a modern medical point of view.
Dysfunctions of the vegetative system can lead to widespread and well-known phenomena: acute and chronic stress, constant lack of sleep, smoking, coffee drinking, overwork, untreated infections (including sex), a sedentary or sedentary lifestyle. During pregnancy, there is an additional factor for failure – the physiological changes in the body. First, the ratio of sex hormones is changing, and they also affect the work of the vessels.
Secondly, the volume of circulating blood increases, causing the load on the vessels to increase.
But not everything is so simple. Vegetative (or neurocirculatory) dystonia is not a separate disease. Moreover, in the international classification, which was recognized more than 10 years ago by domestic doctors, such a diagnosis does not exist at all.
But this circumstance does not prevent the Russian specialists from resorting to it by inertia. What then do medical minds understand by such a mysterious phrase?
It turns out that vegetative dystonia is just a complex of various clinical symptoms that reflect malfunctions in the work of the heart and blood vessels, although other organs sometimes suffer. This is because the contraction of the vascular walls, and therefore the blood pressure, is regulated by the vegetative nervous system. For this reason, in the recent past, vegetative-vascular dystonia was divided into several different types: hypotonic, hypertonic, cardiac, etc. Thus, in the first case, lowered blood pressure was noted, in the second – increased, and heart palpitations, “pricking”).
Modern medicine relates these manifestations to specific diagnoses: hypertension, hypotension, or specific cardiovascular diseases, respectively. Other characteristic symptoms of “vegetative dystonia” include headaches, sleep disturbances, dizziness, respiratory disorders (shortness of breath or difficulty breathing), internal tremors, always cold hands and feet, pain in the joints and muscles, flushes of heat to the face and even fainting.
Understanding the root cause of vegetative disorders is not easy. The difficulty is that the same symptoms are characteristic of true cardiovascular (for example, severe heart defects), neurological (neuroses) and endocrine (disruption of the adrenal or thyroid gland) diseases, as well as mental disorders.
Quite often, osteochondrosis that is widespread today, as well as some kidney diseases, leads to disorders of the autonomic nervous system. In order to eliminate all these scenarios, it is necessary to undergo several specialists (cardiologist, endocrinologist, neurologist) and at least an ultrasound of the heart, thyroid gland and kidneys, as well as electrocardiography, electroencephalography, daily blood pressure monitoring and blood test for hormones.
Doctors will talk about vegetative-vascular dystonia as a symptom complex only when no other diseases are detected during a long series of examinations. And, of course, it is better to find out the true cause of the ailments before conception.
In future mothers, on the background of “vegetative-vascular dystonia”, often there are special symptoms, such as: irritability, emotional instability, causeless spleen. However, this “diagnosis” affects the childbearing and, moreover, the health of the baby extremely rarely, especially if the autonomic disorders are manifested in a mild form.
Some women even claim that during pregnancy their well-being has improved markedly, and the attacks have stopped.
Nevertheless, depending on the type of vegetative disorders, certain precautions are still to be taken. So, approximately 12% of future mothers show hypotension (low blood pressure).
Although women, as a rule, will learn about this peculiarity before pregnancy. It should only be borne in mind that in the early stages, the discomfort may increase.
This is due to the fact that the natural increase in the level of progesterone leads to the expansion of blood vessels and lower blood pressure, which is already low. To get rid of fatigue and feel a surge of vitality, the doctor will prescribe stimulating dietary supplements. Recommendations that must be followed by all pregnant women, without exception, for owners of low pressure, it is important to follow strictly.
These include a strict day regimen, a strong 8-hour sleep in a calm environment, proper nutrition, which improves the nervous regulation of blood vessels and strengthens their walls, and physical exercises that are adequate for an “interesting position”. Regular training of muscles will prevent stagnation of blood, and at the same time improves mood.
Hypertension affects about 5% of expectant mothers. In contrast to hypotension, this condition requires careful examination and constant observation. In the second half of pregnancy, blood pressure in hypertensive patients may rise steadily, which is often fraught with serious complications, such as preeclampsia.
In this case, the doctor will select drugs that normalize blood pressure, and, if necessary, prescribe bed rest or even hospitalization.
Long stay in a sedentary position leads to an overstrain of sight and muscles of a neck, why there can be private headaches. In this case, they are also a manifestation of vegetovascular disorders.
Preventive interruptions in work, therapeutic exercises and massage will help to avoid an unpleasant symptom.