“In the first period of labor, the cervix opens, so it is called“ the period of disclosure. ” This important stage begins with the onset of contractions, and ends when the neck is fully opened (10–12 cm) to release the baby.
In order for this to happen, the uterus must properly contract. Normally, contractions start from the upper part of the uterus (most often from its right corner) and gradually descend down to the neck.
And if they start at the bottom, then the cervix does not receive a sufficient impulse and does not open or does so too slowly. In this case, the expectant mothers are too rare, weak contractions.
Another common scenario for the development of events is as follows: contractions cease “halfway”, and the cervix has time to open only half. But in both cases, doctors talk about a weak labor activity.
What is fraught with problems with the cervix? First of all, they delay the process of the birth of a baby into the world: sometimes because of this, it lasts more than 12 hours.
And besides, these difficulties can “bring down” the correct course of labor. Indeed, normally, the cervix first opens, and then the waters flow away; the baby is born first, and only then the placenta exfoliates and leaves. If the cervix cannot open up, then, without waiting for this, the expectant mother may have to waste water or the placenta to separate ahead of time.
And then, perhaps, doctors will have to do her cesarean section.
What determines whether a woman has problems with the cervix or not? First of all, from her age and “experience.” If a woman gives birth to the first baby after 35 years, the probability that the cervix does not open, is higher for her than for other moms.
After all, many by this age accumulate a variety of health problems. They often affect the course of childbirth, because all body systems take part in this important “work”. For example, more often than others, problems with opening the cervix occur in obese women with metabolic disorders and endocrine system.
The risk is also increased if a woman has gynecological problems – tumors of the uterus (for example, fibroids) or damage to her cervix (for example, cicatricial changes).
Unfortunately, to prevent problems with the opening of the cervix can not always, but in time to detect them and be ready for them – in our power. To identify possible difficulties for the future mother will help the female consultation doctor.
If a woman has any health problems, the experts will send her to the maternity hospital early so that she and the baby are under observation during the most crucial period.
But even those women who are “at risk” should not lose their presence of mind. If the future mother is confident in success and feels calm, this attitude will surely be transferred to her body, and everything will go well. ”
“What is the cause of problems with the opening of the cervix? First, that she did not have time to ripen by the time of birth. In order to open up in time, the cervix must begin to shorten and soften in advance under the influence of “generic” hormones.
And if there are too few of them, the tissues of the cervix will not soften and will not be ready for childbirth. In this case, the missing hormones will be introduced to the expectant mother by the doctors.
Secondly, the baby itself can prevent normal birth. If he has grown too large or is located incorrectly with his mother in the stomach, his head will not be able to press hard on the cervix and open it.
Then the childbirth, which began normally, may suddenly stop, and doctors will have to solve the problem with a cesarean section.
During childbirth, not only the baby itself presses against the cervix, but also the waters that surround it in the fetal bladder. “Flowing” down, they push the tissues of the cervix, like a wedge. But if the bubble does not take a wedge-shaped shape, it will not be able to properly press on the neck.
In this situation, doctors make a hole in the fetal bladder, and then he and the baby move down more easily.
Another problem may arise from the fact that there is too much or too little amniotic fluid in the baby’s bubble. In the first case, the uterus is stretched, and in the second, on the contrary, it strains too much – but in both situations it becomes difficult for it to contract and the cervix does not open.
The third source of cervical difficulties may be hidden in the depths of the uterus. If it is of irregular shape or there are tumors in it (for example, fibroids), it is likely that the cervix will unfold slowly during labor.
Then, if necessary, the woman will undergo a cesarean section.
Well, the fourth reason can “unexpectedly” arise, even when everything goes right. Pain during labor can cause muscle spasm. Then the contractions will stop, and the cervix, instead of opening, will shrink even more.
Sometimes this happens because the expectant mother is too worried. Then her body also “panics” and tries to stop the process of childbirth.
In this case, the doctors inject a painkiller to the woman, it becomes easier for her, and normal contractions are often restored by themselves. ”
The “home” for the future baby – the uterus – consists of three sections: the body in which the child grows (the widest part), the neck (narrow lower part) and the cervical canal connecting them. The neck is a tube of muscle tissue, about 3 cm long.
Its ends are narrowed, and one of them goes into the uterus, and the other into the vagina. During pregnancy, the cervix performs 2 important tasks: it closes the baby for the time being “coming out” and blocks the access of microbes from the vagina to it.
At about 37–38 weeks of gestation, “hormones of labor” begin to be produced in the body, and under their influence, the cervix gradually prepares for the birth of a baby. When the “moment X” comes, the neck softens, shortens and opens slightly under the action of contractions.
For clarity, imagine a balloon (uterus), the leg (cervical canal) of which is tied with two strings (internal and external narrowing of the cervix). With the onset of contractions, the upper rope is untied (that is, the inner constriction is stretched), and then the lower (outer) one.
These holes are getting bigger and bigger – and they open the way to the world for the kid!