What should we pay attention to so that the increased loads do not damage the baby?
The school dictates a certain rhythm of life: early rise, lessons, changes, homework, etc. Getting used to a new daily routine usually takes several months, so it’s necessary to introduce changes into the child’s usual rhythm of life long before the first one call
If a child goes to kindergarten or at least to a group of short-term stay, then he is already used to a certain schedule. Zero groups and preparatory courses at schools help “home” children to work out the rhythm.
Even if the baby has a free morning and he does not have to go anywhere, this is not a reason to break the daily routine. It is necessary to start waking the child at least 15 minutes before the scheduled time of recovery.
After all, even if the crumb in time went to bed, he could not jump out of bed on demand. By the way, orthopedists advise, before getting out of bed, soak a little, stretch in the supine position, and after getting up, make several tilts in different directions and stretch again – already up.
Great exercise – squats. They tone all the muscles and enable the body to finally wake up. To interest karapuz, adults can do exercises with him.
If it will take place in the form of a game, then from the tedious “obliging” will quickly turn into an exciting activity, and you will not have to remind the toddler about it.
Making a schedule of developmental activities, do not get carried away by the amount. A preschooler should have 2-3 hours for walks and time not only for games, but also so that he can be alone with himself.
Even if your baby is not sleeping during the day, still suggest that he lie down for an hour after lunch. Otherwise, he may be excited by the evening.
Also at this time, you can do “quiet” games, read a book, drink, draw.
After lunch, it is time for active rest – walking, outdoor games. After dinner, begin to transfer the toddler in “sleep” mode.
It is best to read a book at this time, to see a calm cartoon, to draw, to drink. These daily rituals will help tune in to sleep and calm down.
Sleep 6-year-old child should not less than 10 hours a day.
If you want to “download” karapuz with additional classes, for example, dancing, it is better to do this a year before school or wait for the child to go to the second grade. Otherwise, there is a risk that a first grader will not cope with increased loads.
At the age of 6–7 years, the increase in growth per year is about 6–8 cm, in weight – about 2–3 kg. Energy is spent on it a lot, and its reserves must be constantly replenished. Calorie content should be distributed in the following way: 25% of calories should be accounted for breakfast, as much for dinner, 35% for lunch and 15% for afternoon tea.
Total per day should gain 1800-2000 calories. To form a reflex and by the time of the meal, digestive juices began to stand out, which facilitate the absorption of food, the child should eat at about the same time.
For breakfast, offer milk porridge, puddings, omelets. The animal proteins contained in them and complex carbohydrates are slowly digested, are also slowly consumed and provide the necessary amount of energy.
If the toddler is having breakfast in kindergarten, let him drink juice, kefir, tea before going out, you can offer a sandwich.
Dinner should consist of 3-4 dishes. Serve a vegetable salad to whet your appetite. As a snack during the day, fruit can be given fruit or yoghurt, vegetable or fruit salad, a sweet bun and tea.
Dinner should be no later than 2 hours before bedtime. Meal should be easily digested. As a drink in the evening you can give tea, compote, juice.
If a child goes to kindergarten, a homemade dinner should complement the daily menu, and not repeat the dishes that were fed during the day. And to find out that the baby was eating in the garden, it is enough to read the menu posted for all to see.
Parents often complain that after the first grade, the child begins to have problems with vision and posture. One thing is very closely connected with the other, and sometimes blurred vision is caused by poor posture. Alas, adults usually pay attention to the latter circumstance only when the changes are visible to the naked eye.
How to keep the child’s normal posture and how to help him not to spoil his eyesight?
Usually, poor tone of the abdominal muscles and the back becomes the cause of the violation of posture. You can swing press lying or hanging. Here are some exercises for example.
It is possible to both bend and unbend the torso, fixing the legs, and vice versa – to raise and lower the legs while the body is stationary. For these purposes it is useful to do the legs exercise “scissors”.
Lying on the floor on the back, the baby puts his hands under the buttocks, and both straightened legs at the same time lifts up to 7–9 cm from the floor and makes them swing wide, so that the legs are above each other. Strengthen the muscles of the back will help exercise “boat” when, lying on the floor on his stomach, the child pulls his arms and legs off the floor.
Since the spine of a 6–7-year-old karapuz is not designed for lifting and carrying weights, the weight of a backpack or any bag with all its contents should not exceed 10–15% of the weight of its owner, and the backpack or bag itself should not weigh more than 300–700 g .
The back of the backpack should be flat and firm and fit snugly to the back. The backpack should not hang below the waist.
When this happens, the back leans back, which causes a shift in the center of gravity and pain in the back. To avoid this, you need to buy a backpack with a belt fastened belt, which will fix the satchel at the right height.
Orthopedists are advised to teach the child to lift weights correctly. First you need to sit down with a flat back, then take the luggage, press it to your chest and only then rise and carry the load.
Usually, the first complaints of a child’s vision problems appear during school years. No wonder. Before that, the kid did not read, did not look at the blackboard and simply did not understand that he did not see 100%.
He did not tell adults about the problem, because he did not know how and what he should see, and he had no reference points for comparison. How not to miss the beginning of problems?
First of all, visit an ophthalmologist once a year for a routine examination. At the same time, one should know that by 6–7 years old, as the eyeball grows, a low degree hyperopia, which is physiological for children’s eyes, disappears.
Correction requires only hyperopia above the age norm.
Do not be surprised if, in normal, in your opinion, vision, the doctor will recommend wearing glasses. This may be if the difference in visual acuity of the two eyes is more than 4 lines. Since the eyes see too different pictures, the brain cannot combine them into one volume.
As a result, the work of one eye is suppressed, and the correct formation of binocular vision becomes impossible. But it allows you to fully perceive the surrounding reality and determine the distance between objects.
A similar situation is fraught with the development of strabismus. In addition, if one eye sees better, it has to work in constant tension, which means that it is likely that its visual acuity may deteriorate.
Correction with glasses returns eyes the ability to work in concert.
Choosing a notebook, check the quality of the paper. If the written text shines through the back of the page, the eyes will strain unnecessarily.
Also make sure that the horizontal lines with which the notebook is lined coincide at the joints of the pages.
Special attention ophthalmologists and orthopedists advise to draw on the arrangement of the workplace – the table at which the child draws, sculpts, reads and writes, and in what position your child is sitting behind him. The baby should be fully leaned on the back of the chair, the feet of the entire foot should be on the floor. At the same time, both between the body and the thigh, and between the lower leg and the thigh, an angle of 90 ° should be maintained.
If the legs do not reach the floor, a stand is needed for them, but ideally, the height of the table and the chair should be adjusted. It is also very important to be able to adjust the angle of the tabletop.
The desktop should stand in the most bright place – by the window, but preferably not opposite it. Otherwise, sun glare will fall on the glossy surface of the table or notebook, be reflected in the eyes and create additional load for them.
If the child is right-handed, the light should fall on the left, if left-handed, the right.
The electric lamp should be 60 watts. Halogen and fluorescent lighting devices are contraindicated in children: the first ones shine too brightly, and the second ones tire the eyes very much due to the constant small flickering of the light. The room should be lit evenly, and it is better to use not the top, but the side lighting.
Also try not to hang tulle on the windows, which absorbs up to 30% of the light coming in through the windows, and do not put tall flowers on the window sills.
When working with any monitor between the brightness of the screen and the lighting of the room should not be a big contrast, otherwise the eyes quickly get tired. Because in the evening you need to look at the screen, turning on the general lighting and a desk lamp. The distance from the eyes to the computer monitor should be 50–70 cm, and from the eyes to the TV screen – three times the size of its diagonal and be at least 3 m.
We can not allow the light source to be reflected in the screen: from the resulting glare eyes get very tired. Harmful also look at the screen at an acute angle.
At 6 years old, you can continuously watch TV for no more than 30–40 minutes, and in total – no more than 1.5 hours a day. Continuous work with electronic devices should not exceed 10 minutes per day, and a total of 30 minutes per day.
For admission to the first class you need a medical card (Form 26y). It is issued in a kindergarten or in a children’s clinic.
Children should be examined:
pediatrician, surgeon, orthopedist, ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, neuropathologist, dentist, and also a narrow specialist who has a future student. If you are targeting a language school, it is advisable to visit a speech therapist.
Test results will also be required: general – urine, clinical – blood, feces on the eggs of worms and scraping on enterobiosis. In addition, you need to do an ECG.
The final conclusion about the state of health of the child makes a pediatrician. Depending on the results of clinical examination, he determines the health group. Their 5:
- I – absolutely healthy children;
- II – children at risk of developing certain disorders: scoliosis, myopia, etc.
- III – children with chronic diseases, such as bronchial asthma or food allergies.
- IV – V – children requiring special learning conditions – at home, or under a lightweight program, or in a correctional school, etc.
Together with a medical card, a vaccination is issued, which indicates the date of vaccination, as well as a series of vaccines.
For children attending kindergarten, a medical card is issued in a children’s institution.