Some parents start learning literacy literally from the cradle with the baby, others take the baby to special educational and developmental groups, and some still trust this difficult task to kindergarten or school preparation courses. Enthusiasts create a developing environment at home, having studied a lot of special benefits and bought a bunch of colorful tables.
But it is not enough to learn letters, learn to put them in syllables and even memorize words and whole sentences. With firm conviction that the child can read, it is possible only when he understands what he read and assimilates the text.
Parents tend to start learning as early as possible, but sometimes they do not take into account the particular physical and intellectual development of the baby. The human brain matures gradually, and by intensively developing those parts of it that cannot yet work in full force, we overload the child, create psychological problems such as lack of concentration, excitability, and discourage the desire to learn.
So how to understand that the little man is physiologically ready to learn reading skills? Landmarks can serve as the following indicators. The child should show interest in letters and sounds, he should easily memorize and repeat new words, be interested in their meaning, try to invent names for surrounding objects, describe their details and features.
Of great importance is the development of phonemic hearing. The karapuz should easily distinguish the first and last sound in a word, determine the location of a given sound – at the beginning, middle or end of a word, remember a few words that would begin, end with the named sound or syllable, or contain it.
A preschooler should have a fairly large active vocabulary appropriate for age. He needs to talk about anything with the correct common sentences, and not with phrases like “give it this”, “well, he is of that very one”.
His patience should be enough for 10–20 minutes to engage in educational games with enthusiasm, to look at a picture, a toy, an animal, a landscape for 5–10 minutes, while noticing details and talking about them.
It is necessary that the crumb could collect the whole from the parts, put together a puzzle or puzzle, be aware of the immediate consequences of the usual everyday actions. Psychologists emphasize that in order for the teaching to be successful, the child must be able to cope with difficulties, at least small, and adequately accept his failures. The well-developed fine motor skills, the eye, as well as the ability to navigate on a piece of paper, will facilitate the process of mastering hard science.
And, of course, a love for the book. This is very important: when a child is read a lot, he also wants to start reading on his own.
In the process of learning only with such a child, the trick works: “Oh, I urgently need to do this and that. You still read this paragraph yourself! “
Do not rush to immediately take the bull by the horns and press the alphabet and primers. Spend a couple of months vocabulary and conversational games. These are “Edible-inedible”, “I know five …”, “Say the opposite”, “Name what begins (ends) on …”, word games and associations.
They can be entertained on the way to the kindergarten, clinic or shop.
Walking through the park, together with the baby, invent stories about everything that comes into their eyes: leaves, birds, insects, brook, cars, clouds, etc. In the process of conversation, complement each other and gradually transfer the reins of power to your son or daughter. So you enrich the vocabulary, develop associative thinking and the logic of the child, without which it is absolutely impossible to learn how to read.
When reading books with a peanut, be sure to discuss them. At the same time, it is important that the child speak out, so that he can freely say what he liked, why, what thoughts about the plot and its turns, about the heroes arose in the process of listening.
So you teach the little man to enter into dialogue with the text, to be an attentive listener and reader, to think about the text and to treat it critically.
And finally, you need to choose what method to teach the child to read. There are more than two dozen of them today. It cannot be said that some of them are more convenient and allow you to master the necessary skill easier and faster.
Any will require from both the parents and the child a rather large mental and physical expenditure. Focus on the individual characteristics of the “teacher” and “student”, mobility, perseverance, child care, adult readiness for the game or for more “serious”, “academic” activities.
To get an idea of the different techniques, do not be lazy to get acquainted with them fluently, at least go to the bookstore and look through the methodical instructions and books that teach reading.
Most of the manuals for kindergartens, an alphabet to prepare for school and primers (“Primer” by N. S. Zhukova, manuals by O.V.
Patterned and E.A. Nefedova, O.L.
Sobolevoj, L.V. Zankova, etc.) are based on the alphanumeric analysis of words. This method has existed since the middle of the XIX century.
Today’s adults and their great-grandparents also learned from it.
Engaged in the method of sound analysis to go through the following steps. First of all, the child becomes acquainted with sounds and letters and learns to isolate various sounds in words, learns that sounds are hard and soft, vowels and consonants, deaf and resonant, that every sound has a designation – a letter.
Then he masters the fusion of sounds into syllables – puts “m” and “a” into “ma”, etc. The difficulty gradually increases: from syllables of two sounds, the baby moves to three and four sounds, then soft and solid marks, confluence of vowels or consonants.
After that, the child learns to make words from the syllables – first short, then more and more complex. Gradually, the “student” goes on to read sentences and texts. At the last stage, he is already trying to recognize the text, grasp the logic of the narration, select and memorize the plot, its intricacies, characters, deeds, goals of the characters, etc.
Advantages: the alpha-sound method is perfectly compatible with the structure of the Russian language. Moreover, scientists believe that most often we spell it in Russian.
Just in adults, this process occurs so quickly and automatically that we do not notice it. This technique develops a phonemic hearing, which helps to solve the speech therapy problems that a child has, and also teaches one to feel the composition of the word, the relatedness of the same-root words.
And since the majority of adult Russians were trained by this method, parents, who lack the time, effort, imagination, and game motivation to invent their own approach to learning, work according to the alphanumeric method the easiest.
Disadvantages: suitable for teaching children over 4.5 years old; it takes a long time for the child to understand how letters are combined into syllables, and syllables into words; the kid spends so much effort on “stringing” letters and words on each other, that he can no longer understand the meaning of a word or a sentence. Hence the main “minus”: a crumb can not see the result of its training for too long and loses interest in it. And in fact: it seems to be diligently and has been engaged for a long time, but it still does not work to read like a mother or grandmother.
This is not surprising: the technique requires the child to develop good logical, analytical and synthetic skills and it is based on them. For this reason, the “right-hemisphere” children, those who are prone to fantasizing, creativity, play, study hard and boring.
Among the huge number of alphabets and other books that acquaint children with letters and sounds, experts advise to pay special attention to interactive tutorials that have “sounding” pages. Children usually like to look at pictures and press buttons.
The process of memorizing the correspondence of sound to a letter proceeds as if by itself.
Another convenient thing for adults is the magnetic alphabet. It is convenient to play with her in the kitchen.
While adults are preparing dinner, the baby next to it attaches letters to the refrigerator. With this alphabet, you can come up with a lot of games – for example, to suggest that the child find letters that begin the names of dishes, products, kitchen and dining utensils. In the future, with your help, the child will be able to create a whole menu on the door of the refrigerator. To make it easy for the baby to look at the alphabet, choose books with bright and clear drawings, where each letter has a whole page (otherwise there will be confusion in the head of the baby).
Images of objects, animals, etc., corresponding to letters, should be not only well known to the young reader, but also similar to their “prototypes”.
The idea that it is easier and more natural to read in the storehouses for a child dates back to the time of Leo Tolstoy, and the St. Petersburg teacher N.А. Zaitsev, who invented his famous cubes. This manual for teaching reading, as well as literacy, counting, writing, is radically different from all others.
Although the methodology was originally designed for 5–6-year-old children, today there are developing centers that offer to teach reading “according to Zaitsev” literally from birth.
What is the essence of the method? A merger of sounds is considered a warehouse: a consonant with a vowel, a consonant with a soft or hard sign, a separate vowel or a consonant sound. For example, “ma-ma”, “we-sh-ka”, etc. Warehouses are located on the edges of cardboard cubes.
The cubes differ in color, size and sound, which they emit due to the corresponding filling. The toolkit includes tables on which all the warehouses of the Russian language are located (they need to be sung), a book for adults with examples of assignments and a disk with song songs.
Advantages: the technique teaches to read not by letters and syllables, but by warehouses; it is very physiological and the most “playful”. Physiological because the cubes are designed for all the senses of the baby. The method helps to preserve the toddler’s normal vision – because the cubes, unlike the text of the book, are voluminous, not flat, and the crumbs do not need to once again strain their eyes.
They are interesting and sound differently: iron – thunder, wooden – knock, some also rustle. They differ in weight and color – these are the number of helpers for identifying and finding the right parts of a word!
And if the cubes and tables are placed at different ends of the room, it will be possible to train the muscles of the eyeball. With the help of cubes, you can also train fine motor skills, which affects the development of intelligence.
Since this learning system involves constant movement, it is ideal for active and hyperactive children. And in fact, you can just play the cubes in a fun way than the creator of the technique and suggests doing at the very first “lessons”: build towers and bridges, trains and tunnels from them, use them as projectiles and beds for dolls.
With them you can sing, dance and tumble. In this case, memorization of warehouses occurs as if by itself, the child’s attention is not fixed on this.
As a result, the baby begins to read quickly and easily. Due to the fact that there are no wrong combinations on the dice (for example, “zhy-shy”), the crumb initially remembers the correct spelling of words.
The technique is suitable for any age, even for monthly babies. It can be used as a speed learning tool if there are literally a couple of months left before school.
After just a few lessons, the kid will be able to play cubes and sing the tables without the help of an adult, which will save parents time and teach the child to independence.
Disadvantages: in school, the child will have to be retrained from warehouses into syllables and parts of words; there will be difficulties with the division of the word into syllables; many parents are not ready to combine classes with loud, mobile games; the store where cubes and tables are sold will have to be searched, and making the cubes yourself is not so easy. In addition, the tables occupy a lot of space, which is a big problem for modern small-sized apartments.
The method that is fundamentally opposite to the sound one is known as the Glen Doman method. Doman offers for teaching reading to show the baby from the first days of his life cards – first with words, and then with sentences made up of these words. Words are written on a separate card in large red letters. According to the author of the technique, having seen the word several times and having heard how it is pronounced, the child remembers it, and after learning a sufficient number of new words, he begins to read.
Crush cards should be shown several times a day.
Advantages: you can teach a child right from birth; the technique involves the mandatory comprehensive development of the baby.
Disadvantages: the technique is justified when it comes to Romance languages, but it does not take into account the grammatical structure of the Russian language. If in the English language there are complex rules of reading and many easily remembered short words, in Russian the overwhelming majority of words are pronounced the same way they are written, so that, having learned letters and sounds (or depots), you can read any new word.
For this, it is not necessary to remember what it looks like. In addition, in Romance languages, in contrast to Russian, words do not change in case and gender. In Russian, the same noun will have to be done with a dozen cards.
This will require a huge amount of time and effort from the parents, which for many of them makes the Doman method practically unenviable in life. The technique is based on the visual memory of the crumbs, but it is not unlimited.
A child who has already been trained to read words will experience difficulties in school when they have to divide a word into parts or make its phonetic analysis.
The same advantages, but a little less flaws, experts note in the method of Cecil Lupan. The main thing is for those who want to teach reading from the cradle it is not so laborious. Lupan proposes to associate words not with abstract objects, but with specific objects surrounding the child. All household items are invited to attach a card with clearly written names.
Passing through the apartment with the baby in her arms, the adult draws his attention to the object and the card, clearly and distinctly pronouncing the word. Alas, you will not attach a card to the sky, grass, snow.
Therefore, experts believe that such cards will help develop a visual memory, but not to teach how to fully read. The child will be able to recognize individual words, captions under the pictures, due to which he will be able to read with greater speed, and this is probably all that we can count on.
This is the basis of the Maria Montessori method. Children first learn to write letters, and at the same time they are in capital letters and not printed ones, since preschool children can draw round lines easier than straight lines. The Montessorian letters are rough and multi-colored, the little ones run their fingers over them, circle them until they remember them.
Then they begin to make three-letter words that differ in one letter (cat-kit), gradually moving to longer and more complex.
Montessori proposes to teach the child anything at the appropriate sensitive period, that is, the time of greatest susceptibility to a certain type of activity. For example, exercises that prepare a hand for writing — hatching, padding — are recommended for children from 2–3 years old, and direct learning to read is already at the age of 4–6 years.
To teach reading using the Montessori method, you need to create a zone of the Russian language. It includes: cards with pictures and words, expanding vocabulary and developing phonemic hearing; metal frame inserts for dribbling and hatching; hand scissors for cutting paper; introduces the rough alphabet with the letters (cut out of velvet paper), a tray with semolina, so that the crumb could write letters on it; The material for writing the words is a large movable alphabet, cut from colored cardboard: blue for consonants and pink for vowels; reading material – cards with words written in distinct italics.
Cards are placed in boxes and envelopes.
Advantages: the child quickly begins to read in whole words and learns to read inwardly, which helps him to better understand the text; The technique develops independence, independence from authorities, a habit to be guided by the requirements and the speed of mastering and mastering of skills. The baby learns to write capital letters beautifully and at the same time actively develops fine motor skills.
Disadvantages: lessons on this method require a certain preparation from an adult – creating a specially equipped environment. The materials that are needed for classes are cumbersome and quite expensive.
The technique assumes that the child is extremely obedient, and eliminates the creative approach: you can work with the material only for its intended purpose and in no other way. The habit of working exclusively independently makes it difficult for people to get used to the school principle “do as I do, follow me”, and for children who have been trained using this method, it is difficult to exist in the general rhythm of a class.
The method is not suitable for active fidgets, who, while performing the task, simply do not sit alone, for children with a bright creative start, as well as very closed and shy.
It is better to write in the recipe with a soft simple pencil. This will teach the child to properly distribute when writing muscle efforts. After all, if you press the pencil too hard, it will break, if it is too weak, nothing will be visible.
In addition, in this case, it is easy to correct errors. It is very important that the crumb understand: you can make mistakes, it’s not at all scary, the main thing is to notice and correct them in time.
Whatever method you choose, try to take into account several important circumstances:
- Both you and the child should be sufficiently motivated to attend classes. The task of a mother or grandmother is not just to teach a child to put letters into words, but to show him that learning is an exciting and exciting process. If you do not see any interest in teaching your son or daughter, entrust this matter to the specialists in pre-school education and training – teachers and educators of a kindergarten or developmental center.
- Until the age of 7, a child masters the world mainly through play, as at this age the right brain plays a leading role in his life, which is responsible for imagery and creativity. For this reason, it is imperative to include game elements in the learning process: letters and hide-and-seek, and sally, guessing games, a lesson on behalf of the doll, and the training of toy soldiers – it is important that the information be received in a brightly shaped “package”.
- Alternate tasks and activities: include drawing, modeling, singing, physical exercises, computer presentations. Try to make the information reach the child through all the channels of perception: audial (by ear), visual, tactile – that is, so that the baby can hear and touch and see what he has to get acquainted with.
- One “lesson” should last no longer than 15 minutes. Ideally, after the end of classes, the baby should crave to continue. This is a great motivation for further education.
- Do not rush the baby, do not compare it with other children or advertising promises of methods. Everyone has their own way and pace of development: the better you and the child themselves understand this, the easier it will be for the little man to live and learn.
- Remember about the “zone of proximal development”: try to be one step higher than the current capabilities of the future student: this way you support his belief in his strength, open up the horizons of new opportunities.
Pay attention to the notebooks-prescription for preschoolers from the series “Prepare a hand to the letter”, “Learn to write letters”, etc. They are divided according to the age and complexity of the tasks: 3-4 years old should mainly draw, children 5-6 years old There are fun tasks that teach you to write the individual elements correctly, and then the letters themselves.