This gives a complete picture of the future mother and the possible difficulties and complications that doctors may encounter during the birth process. The doctor will also ask if the woman has bad habits, what medications she has taken, whether there are hereditary diseases in the family, etc. Bad habits can affect the future baby’s well-being, and information about heredity will help the neonatologist to give birth to the child after the birth .
Then the doctor will assess the height, weight, body of a woman, she will measure the temperature, blood pressure and pulse rate. Normal temperature, pressure and pulse can indicate the absence of an inflammatory process and such a formidable and severe complication, as pre-eclampsia.
Particular attention is paid to the color and condition of the skin, the nature of hair distribution. Pale, dry skin and mucous membranes indicate the likelihood of anemia.
With excessive hair growth, there is reason to suspect hormonal disorders, which sometimes cause complications during childbirth. Varicose veins give reason to fear bleeding and thrombosis.
This can be prevented by using elastic bandages during labor.
The next stage can be called measuring. With the help of a measuring tape, the doctor will determine the size of the abdomen and the height of the uterus bottom (the distance from the womb to the bottom of the uterus).
This will help to assume at what time the woman is pregnant, and using the special formula to calculate the mass of the unborn child with an accuracy of up to 200 g. Then with a tool resembling a large compass, the doctor measures the pelvis of the woman in labor.
The data obtained give an idea whether it will not prevent the child from moving to the “exit”.
In addition, in the emergency room, an obstetric stethoscope will listen to the baby’s heartbeat. The heartbeat rhythm speaks of the child’s well-being and readiness for childbirth.
In addition, an obstetrician-gynecologist gently feels the abdomen to determine the tone of the uterus, how the baby is located in it, whether there are fibroids, and at the same time assess the condition of the anterior abdominal wall. It would seem that simple feeling, but how much useful information it gives!
And finally, vaginal examination. It is necessary to assess the degree of dilation of the cervix and the integrity of the fetal bladder, to understand whether it interferes or helps in childbirth.
Also, be sure to pay attention to the discharge from the genital tract and determine whether there is blood in them.
Already in the birth unit of a woman, blood and urine tests will be taken, and ultrasound can be done. For the obstetrician-gynecologist, this is one of the most important supporting research.
It provides information about the baby’s presentation, its estimated weight, the amount of amniotic fluid, and where the placenta is located.
As for the child’s well-being, he is constantly monitored in the rodblock using cardiotocography. Sensors strengthen mothers on the belly.
With the help of one of them, the baby’s heart rate and its changes depending on the uterus tone are continuously recorded, the other sensor evaluates the contractile activity of the uterus. Indicators are taken every 1.5–2 hours. When contractions begin to gain strength, the doctor monitors the state of the mother (her pressure, pulse, temperature), notes the increase in the strength of contractions and their intensity.
If everything is all right, the medical staff will only watch the woman and morally support her. When contractions are in full swing, the issue of anesthesia of labor can be discussed.
If, according to CTG, doctors suspect deviations from the norm, this does not mean that the expectant mother will immediately begin to inject drugs. Sometimes it is enough to support a parturient woman with a kind word, encourage her, give her the opportunity to rest.
Stimulate cervical dilatation is often helped by amniotomy – the opening of the fetal bladder. If CTG records abnormalities in the baby’s heart rate, but they are short-lived and the baby moves well along the birth canal, the child’s condition will simply be closely monitored.
If doctors suspect hypoxia, then the child will be born as soon as possible, and an emergency caesarean section is possible.
The most crucial period of childbirth occurs when the attempts are joined (contractions of the abdominal muscles). The head of the child passes through the birth canal and sinks to the pelvic floor. Since the baby at this stage is experiencing the maximum load, the doctor constantly monitors his health and progress.
It is important for a woman to remain calm and try to help the baby by following the recommendations of the doctors, because a little more and the child will be born. When the baby is already on the way, the doctor assesses whether the tissues of the perineum stretch well.
If not, the woman will make an episiotomy.
And now the newborn is already on the mother’s belly. It would seem that all behind.
But the obstetrician-gynecologist continues to monitor the condition of the woman in labor. Most of all in the third, afterbirth, the period of childbirth should beware of bleeding. It may occur if fragments of the placenta remain in the uterus.
Therefore, the doctor, after the afterbirth was born (the placenta, together with the fetal membranes and the umbilical cord), carefully examines it and evaluates the integrity. When there is not enough of a shell or the placenta has an insufficient number of lobules, the doctor will manually remove the remains.
When the danger is eliminated, with the help of a spoon-shaped mirror, the obstetrician will examine the birth canal to identify tears and abrasions. They are quickly and easily sutured and no longer bother a woman. In the next two hours after childbirth, doctors and a midwife continue to monitor a young mother: it is believed that most often the most terrible complications arise during this period.
Then the woman is transferred to the postpartum ward.